Maori is a polysynthetic language






Selected bibliography:



A.W. v. Observations on the language et la literature provençales. Paris 1818.

W. v. About the difference in the structure of human language. Bln. 1836.

F.N. The main types of language construction. Lpz. 1909 / Darmstadt 1965.

Father W. The Language Families and Language Areas of the Earth. Heidelberg 1926.

J.H. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In: ders. (Ed.), Universals of language. Cambridge, Mass. 1963, 73-113.

J.H. Language typology: A historical and analytical overview. The Hague 1974.

H. Basic features of the language typology. Methodology, empiricism and systematics of the languages ​​of Europe. Stuttgart 1976.

G. General language typology: approaches and methods. Darmstadt 1979.

B. Language Universals and Language Typology. Oxford 1981.

J. Typology, universals and change of language. In: Ders. (Ed.), Historical Syntax. The Hague 1984.

P. Linguistic Typology. Bln. 1987.






Concept developments:



A) Typology of morphology:

a) analytical vs. synthetic

b) isolating vs. agglutinating vs. inflecting vs. polysynthetic (vs. incorporating)

c) root isolating vs. stem isolating;
root-reflecting vs. trunk-reflecting vs. group-reflecting;
subordinating vs. incorporating vs. sequencing


B) Typology of syntax:

a) SOV vs. SVO vs. VSO (vs. VOS vs. OVS vs. OSV)

b) nominative vs. ergative vs. active
Example of agglutinating morphology:

Turkish nominal morphology:


tribe Plural Possessive case Copula (pres.)
 possibly  ler  in the 1.Sg.   Nom.  in the 1.Sg.
 in 2.Sg.  in Gene.  sin 2.Sg.
 i 3.Sg.  e Date  to you 3.Sg.
 imiz 1st place  i Acc.  iz 1st place
 iniz 2nd place  de Locomotive.  siniz 2nd place
 leri 3rd place  the Oj  dirler 3rd place


Comparison of synthetic-agglutinating vs. analytical-flexing:


 possibly (das) House    possiblyler (die) HÄushe
 possiblyin the my house    possiblyimiz our House
 possiblyde in the house    possiblyin (dit) Houseit
 possiblyto you (it) is (das) House    possiblylerdir (!) (it) are (die) HÄushe
 possiblyimdir (it) is my House    possiblylerimizdir (it) areour HÄushe
 possiblyiminsin you are (the one) mine Houseit
 possiblylerinizdedirler they are in yours HÄuser
etc.
 
Note:
 possiblyindeyiz we are_in_him House
 possiblylerlerindendir he is from_your House / _their HÄuser.




Nominal form formation in Turkish (excerpt)

kadınımız

? kadınımızım
kadınımızsın
kadınımızdır
? kadınımızız
kadınımızsınız
? kadınımızdırlar
? kadınımızdım
kadınımızdın
kadınımızdı
? kadınımızdık
kadınımızdınız
? kadınımızdılar
? kadınımızmışım
kadınımızmışsın
kadınımızmış
? kadınımızmışız
kadınımızmışsınız
? kadınımızmışlar
? kadınımızsam
kadınımızsan
kadınımızsa
? kadınımızsak
kadınımızsanız
kadınımızsalar
kadınımızın

? kadınımızınım
? kadınımızınsın
kadınımızındır
? kadınımızınız
? kadınımızınsınız
kadınımızındırlar
? kadınımızındım
? kadınımızındın
kadınımızındı
? kadınımızındık
? kadınımızındınız
kadınımızındılar
? kadınımızınmışım
? kadınımızınmışsın
kadınımızınmış
? kadınımızınmışız
? kadınımızınmışsınız
kadınımızınmışlar
? kadınımızınsam
? kadınımızınsan
kadınımızınsa
? kadınımızınsak
? kadınımızınsanız
kadınımızınsalar
kadınımıza

? kadınımızayım
? kadınımızasın
kadınımızadır
? kadınımızayız
? kadınımızasınız
kadınımızadırlar
? kadınımızaydım
? kadınımızaydın
kadınımızaydı
? kadınımızaydık
? kadınımızaydınız
kadınımızaydılar
? kadınımızaymışım
? kadınımızaymışsın
kadınımızaymış
? kadınımızaymışız
? kadınımızaymışsınız
kadınımızaymışlar
? kadınımızaysam
? kadınımızaysan
kadınımızaysa
? kadınımızaysak
? kadınımızaysanız
kadınımızaysalar
kadınımızda

kadınımızdayım
kadınımızdasın
kadınımızdadır
kadınımızdayız
kadınımızdasınız
kadınımızdadırlar
kadınımızdaydım
kadınımızdaydın
kadınımızdaydı
kadınımızdaydık
kadınımızdaydınız
kadınımızdaydılar
kadınımızdaymışım
kadınımızdaymışsın
kadınımızdaymış
kadınımızdaymışız
kadınımızdaymışsınız
kadınımızdaymışlar
kadınımızdaysam
kadınımızdaysan
kadınımızdaysa
kadınımızdaysak
kadınımızdaysanız
kadınımızdaysalar
kadınımızdan

kadınımızdanım
kadınımızdansın
kadınımızdandır
kadınımızdanız
kadınımızdansınız
kadınımızdandırlar
kadınımızdandım
kadınımızdandın
kadınımızdandı
kadınımızdandık
kadınımızdandınız
kadınımızdandılar
kadınımızdanmışım
kadınımızdanmışsın
kadınımızdanmış
kadınımızdanmışız
kadınımızdanmışsınız
kadınımızdanmışlar
kadınımızdansam
kadınımızdansan
kadınımızdansa
kadınımızdansak
kadınımızdansanız
kadınımızdansalar

 




Agglutinating and inflecting morphological processes in competition:

Georgian nominal morphology: saxl-i "House"

case Singular  -eb-Plural  -n-Plural
Nominative  saxl-i  saxl-eb-i  saxl-n-i
Ergative  saxl-ma  saxl-eb-ma  saxl-ta
dative  saxl-s  saxl-eb-s
Genitive  saxl-is  saxl-eb-is
Instrumental  saxl-it  saxl-eb-it
Adverbial  saxl-ad  saxl-eb-ad  (saxl-ta-d)


Agglutinativity "distorted" by sound processes:

Finnish nominal morphology: leipä "Loaf of bread"

case Singular Plural
Nominative  leipä  leivä-t
Partitive  leipä-ä  leip-i-ä
Genitive  leivä-n  leip-i-en
Inessive  leivä-ssä  leiv-i-ssä
Elative  leivä-stä  leiv-i-stä
Illative  leipä-än  leip-i-in
Adessive  leivä-llä  leiv-i-llä
ablative  leivä-ltä  leiv-i-ltä
Allative  leivall  leiv-i-lle
Translative  leivä-ksi  leiv-i-ksi
Essive  leipä-Nä  leip-i-Nä


Newly developed agglutinativity:

Ossetian nominal morphology: zærdæ "Heart"

case Singular Plural
Nominative  zærdæ  zærdæ-t-æ
Genitive  zærdæ-j-y  zærdæ-t-y
dative  zærdæ-j-æn  zærdæ-t-æn
Allative  zærdæ-mæ  zærdæ-tæ-m
ablative  zærdæ-j zærdæ-tæ-j
Inessive  zærdæ-j-y  zærdæ-t-y
Adessive  zærdæ-j-yl  zærdæ-t-yl
Sociative  zærdæ-imæ  zærdæ-t-imæ
Essive  zærdæ-j-au  zærdæ-t-au
 

Polysynthetic structures:




A) Polypersonality in Georgian:


1. Active: "the student writes (/ wrote / should have written) a letter to the neighbor"


  agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
Present  sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist  sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect  sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i



2. Active: "I (/ you ...) write (/ wrote ..) a letter to the neighbor"


Present agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  v-s-c̣er  amxanags  c̣eril-s
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  s-c̣er  amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
3.Ps.Sg.  is  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  v-s-c̣er-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  s-c̣er-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
3.Ps.Pl.  isini  s-c̣er-en amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  mi-v-s-c̣er-e  amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  mi-s-c̣er-e amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Sg.  man  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  mi-v-s-c̣er-e-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  mi-s-c̣er-e-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Pl.  mat  mi-s-c̣er-e-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  mi-mi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  mi-gi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Sg.  mas  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  mi-gvi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  mi-gi-c̣er-i-a-t amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Pl.  mat  mi-u-c̣er-i-a-t amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i


B) Polypersonality in the West Caucasian verbal system:

Adygean (West Cherkessian):


a) single act:

 səḳ ° aġ
  -  ḳ ° a  -  G
b) two-octant:

 wəsḥəġ

 səqožaġ
  -   -   -  ža  -  G
c) three-octant:

 wəqəsejtə
  -   -  s  -  e  -  j  -  
 
d) multi-act antigen: Kabardian (Ostcherkessisch):

 u  -  a  -  q̇ə  -   -  d  -  ej  -  z  -  γă  -  šə  -  žə  -  f  -  ă  -   -  q̇əm
2.Sg.   3rd place   Local Pres.   Social   Local Pres.   3.Sg.   1.Sg.   Causative pr.   Vbwz.   Redirect.   Potent.   Pret.   Plusqu.   Neg.
you   them   here   With   from there   him   I   cause   to lead   back   can   earlier   before   Not
"I couldn't get him to bring you back with them from there"



Incorporating structures:



"Versional" verbs in Abkhazian:

a) "subjective":


 jəsxasc'ojṭ
  -  s  -  xa  -  s  -  c'a  -  wa  -  jt '
 jəsčəc'ask'weiṭ
  -  s  -  čəc'a  -  s  -  k '  -  wa  -  jṭ


b) "objective":


 jəlxasc'ojṭ
 - l  - xa  - s  - c'a  - wa  - jt '
 jəš ° čəc'ask'weiṭ
  -  š °  -  čəc'a  -  s  -  k '  -  wa  -  jṭ

Nominative languages ​​vs. ergative languages ​​vs. active languages



Verbal dichotomy: "intransitive" vs. "transitive"
Semantic roles: "Patiens" vs. "Agents"
Syntactic actant positions: "subject" vs. "object"

 

Actants

Verbs
Active languages   Nominative languages   Ergative languages
  "Agent" "Patiens"   agent Patiens   agent Patiens
intransitive active Inactive   Nominative  /   Absolutely  /
transitive   Nominative accusative   Ergative Absolutely




A) Example for active languages:

a) Dakota:

intransitive-active transitive-active intransitive-inactive transitive inactive
 wa-lową  wa-kastaka  ma-khuze  ma-kastaka
"I sing" "I hit him" "I'm sick" "he hits me"


b) See German I'm freezing vs. I'm freezing.


B) Examples of Ergative Languages:

a) Circassian:

intransitive transitive
 šə-r măzəm k '° aγă  ł'əẑə-m čəγə-r əγăt'əsəγ
"the horse (-r, Abs.) Ran into the forest " "old man (-m, Erg.) Planted the tree (-r, Section.)"


b) Abkhazian:

intransitive transitive
 jara sara səlzasweit '  sara lara wara uləstoit '
 jara sara sə-l = z-a-s-wa-jt '  sara lara wara wə-lə-s-ta-wa-jt '
"I (sara / sə-) hit it (jara / -a-) For (= z-) you (-l =)" "I (sara / -s-) give yourself (wara / wə-) you (lara / -l-)


c) Avaric:


intransitive transitive
 emen ruq̄'obe w-us̄ana  wac̄as̄ χur b-ekł'ana
"the father (emes, Abs., I.Kl. / w-) returned home " "the brother (wac̄-as̄, Erg., I.Kl.) plowed the field (χur, Abs., III.Kl. / b-)"



d) Split ergativity: Zāzā:


intransitive present tense transitive present tense
 ez berveno ez ey vineno
"I (ez, Nom.) Cry " "I (ez, Nom.) See him (ey, Obl.) "
intransitive past tense transitive simple past
 ez berveno  mə u di
"I (ez, Abs.) Cried " "I (, Res.) Saw him (u, Section.)"

intransitive present tense transitive present tense
 u bervena  u mə vinena
"he (u, Nom.) Cries " "he (u, Nom.) Sees me (, Obl.) "
intransitive past tense transitive simple past
 u berva  ey ez dio
"he (u, Abs.) Cried " "he (ey, Res.) Saw me (ez, Section.)"


e) Split ergativity: Georgian:


1. Active: "the student writes (/ wrote / should have written) a letter to the neighbor"


  agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
Present  sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist  sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect  sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i



2. Active: "I (/ you ...) write (/ wrote ..) a letter to the neighbor"


Present agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  v-s-c̣er  amxanags  c̣eril-s
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  s-c̣er  amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
3.Ps.Sg.  is  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  v-s-c̣er-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  s-c̣er-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
3.Ps.Pl.  isini  s-c̣er-en amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  mi-v-s-c̣er-e  amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  mi-s-c̣er-e amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Sg.  man  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  mi-v-s-c̣er-e-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  mi-s-c̣er-e-t amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Pl.  mat  mi-s-c̣er-e-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
1.Ps.Sg.  me  mi-mi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Sg.  šen  mi-gi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Sg.  mas  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
1.Ps.Pl.  čven  mi-gvi-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
2.Ps.Pl.  tkven  mi-gi-c̣er-i-a-t amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
3.Ps.Pl.  mat  mi-u-c̣er-i-a-t amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i


3. Passive: "the letter is (/ was / should have been) written by the student (to the neighbor)"


"absolutely" Patiens (Predicate) (Addressee) agent
Present  c̣eril-i  i-c̣er-eb-a  suden is-is mier
Aorist  c̣eril-i  da-i-c̣er-a  suden is-is mier
Perfect  c̣eril-i  da-c̣er-il-a  suden m-is mier
"relative" Patiens (Predicate) (Addressee) agent
Present  c̣eril-i  e-c̣er-eb-a amxanag-s  sṭudenṭis mier
Aorist  c̣eril-i  da-e-c̣er-a amxanag-s  suden m-is mier
Perfect  c̣eril-i  da-s-c̣er-i-a amxanag-s  sṭudenṭis mier



4. Active: "the student (s) writes / write (..) a letter (s) to the neighbors"


  agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
Present  sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
   sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-eb-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist  sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-eb-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect  sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-eb-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
  agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
Present  sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
   sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-eb-s
Aorist  sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-eb-i
Perfect  sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-eb-i
  agent (Predicate) (Addressee) Patiens
Present  sṭudenṭ-i  s-c̣er-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
   sṭudenṭ-eb-i  s-c̣er-en amxanag-s  c̣eril-s
Aorist  sṭudenṭ-ma  mi-s-c̣er-a amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-eb-ma  mi-s-c̣er-e-s amxanag-s  c̣eril-i
Perfect  sṭudenṭ-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i
   sṭudenṭ-eb-s  mi-u-c̣er-i-a-t amxanag-is-tvis  c̣eril-i


f) Split ergativity due to changing positions of the actant characters on the verb: Basque:

1.izan "sein", intr. auxiliary verb, single act: e.g. ni joaten naiz "I walk"

 

Subj.

1.Sg. 2.Sg.m. 2.Sg.f. 3.Sg. 1st place 2.Sg.h. 2nd place 3rd place
Present  naiz  haiz  haiz  there  gara  zara  zarete  dira
preterite  nintzen  hintzen  hintzen  Zen  ginen  zinen  interest  chirping

2.izan "sein", intr. auxiliary verb, two-actant: e.g. ni joaten natzaizu "I run to you"

IO \ S Present
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hatzait  hatzait  zait  /  zatzaizkit  zatzaizkidate  zaizkit
2m  natzaik  /  /  zaik  gatzaizkik  /  /  zaizkik
2f  natzain  /  /  zain  gatzaizkin  /  /  zaizkin
3S  natzaio  hatzaio  hatzaio  zaio  gatzaizkio  zatzaizkio  zatzaizkiote  zaizkio
1P  /  hatzaigu  hatzaigu  zaigu  /  zatzaizkigu  zatzaizkigute  zaizkigu
2h  natzaizu  /  /  zaizu  gatzaizkizu  /  /  zaizkizu
2P  natzaizue  /  /  zaizue  gatzaizkizue  /  /  zaizkizue
3P  natzaie  hatzaie  hatzaie  zaie  gatzaizkie  zatzaizkie  zatzaizkiete  zaizkie
 
IO \ S
preterite
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hintzaidan  hintzaidan  zitzaidan  /  zintzaizkidan  zintzaizkidaten  zitzaizkidan
2m  nintzaian  /  /  zitzaian  gintzaizkian  /  /  zitzaizkian
2f  nintzainan  /  /  zitzainan  gintzaizkinan  /  /  zitzaizkinan
3S  nintzaion  hintzaion  hintzaion  zitzaion  zintzaizkion  zintzaizkion  zintzaizkioten  zitzaizkion
1P  /  back fence  back fence  zitzaigun  /  zintzaizkigun  zintzaizkiguten  zitzaizkigun
2h  nintzaiun  /  /  zitzaizun  gintzaizkizun  /  /  zitzaizkizun
2P  nintzaizuen  /  /  zitzaizuen  gintzaizkizuen  /  /  zitzaizkizuen
3P  nintzaien  hintzaien  hintzaien  common sharks  gintzaizkien  zintzaizkien  zintzaizkieten  zitzaizkien

3.joan "go", intr. verb, two-actant: e.g. ni noakik "I run to you"


IO

\ S

 
IO

\ S

Present
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hoakit  hoakit  d (ih) oakit  /  zoazkit  zoazkidate  d (ih) oazkit
2m  noakik  /  /  d (ih) oakik  goakik  /  /  d (ih) oazkik
2f  noakin  /  /  d (ih) oakin  goakin  /  /  d (ih) oazkin
3S  noakio  hoakio  hoakio  d (ih) oakio  goakio  zoazkio  zoazkiote  d (ih) oazkio
1P  /  hoakigu  hoakigu  d (ih) oakigu  /  zoazkigu  zoazkigute  d (ih) oazkigu
2h  noakizu  /  /  d (ih) oakizu  goakizu  /  /  d (ih) oazkizu
2P  noakizue  /  /  d (ih) oakizue  goakizue  /  /  d (ih) oazkizue
3P  noakie  hoakie  hoakie  d (ih) oakie  goakie  zoazkie  zoazkiete  d (ih) oazkie
 
preterite
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hindoakidan  hindoakidan  zihoakidan  /  zindoazkidan  zindoazkidaten  zihoazkidan
2m  nindoakian  /  /  zihoakian  gindoazkian  /  /  zihoazkian
2f  nindoakinan  /  /  zihoakinan  gindoazkinan  /  /  zihoazkinan
3S  nindoakion  hindoakion  hindoakion  zihoakion  zindoazkion  zindoazkion  zindoazkioten  zihoazkion
1P  /  hindoakigun  hindoakigun  zihoakigun  /  zindoazkigun  zindoazkiguten  zihoazkigun
2h  nindoakiun  /  /  zihoakizun  gindoazkizun  /  /  zihoazkizun
2P  nindoakizuen  /  /  zihoakizuen  gindoazkizuen  /  /  zihoazkizuen
3P  nindoakia  hindoak  hindoak  zihoakia  gindoazkien  zindoazkien  zindoazkieten  zihoazkien


4.ukan "have", tr. auxiliary verb, two-actant


Ag

\ Pt

 
Ag

\ Pt

Present
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  skin  skin  dut  /  zaitut  zaituzte  ditut
2m  nauk  /  /  duk  gaituk  /  /  dituk
2f  well  /  /  dun  gaitun  /  /  ditun
3S  exactly  huh  huh  you  gaitu  zaitu  zaituzte  ditu
1P  /  haugu  haugu  dugu  /  zaitugu  zaituztegu  ditugu
2h  exactly  /  /  duzu  gaituzu  /  /  dituzu
2P  exactly  /  /  duzue  gaituzue  /  /  dituzue
3P  naute  skinned  skinned  dute  gaitue  zaituzte  zaituzte (te)  dituzte
 
preterite
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hindudan  hindudan  now!  /  zintudan  zintuztedan  nituen!
2m  ninduan  /  /  huh!  gintuan  /  /  hituen!
2f  nindunan  /  /  huh!  gintunan  /  /  hituen!
3S  ninduen  hindu  hindu  toen!  act  tin  zintuzten  quotes!
1P  /  hindu  hindu  enjoy!  /  zintugun  zintuztegun  genitals!
2h  ninduzun  /  /  zenuen!  gintuzun  /  /  zenituen!
2P  induce  /  /  zenute!  gintuzuen  /  /  zenith!
3P  ninduten  Hindu  Hindu  to eat!  gintuzten  zintuzten  zintuzte (te) n  quote!


5.eduki "have", tr. auxiliary verb, two-actant


Ag

\ Pt

 
Ag

\ Pt

Present
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  haukat  haukat  dahkat  /  zauzkat  zauzkatet  dahzkat
2m  naukak  /  /  durkak  gauzkak  /  /  dauzkak
2f  naukan  /  /  dahkan  gauzkan  /  /  dahzkan
3S  nauka  hauka  hauka  dauka  gauzka  zauzka  zauzkate  dauzka
1P  /  haukagu  haukagu  dahkagu  /  zauzkagu  zauzkategu  dahzkagu
2h  naukazu  /  /  dahkazu  gauzkazu  /  /  dahzkazu
2P  naukazue  /  /  dahkazue  gauzkazue  /  /  dahzkazue
3P  naukate  haukate  haukate  dahkate  gauzkate  zauzkate  zauzkate (te)  dauzkate
 
preterite
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hindukadan  hindukadan  neukan!  /  zinduzkadan  zinduzkatedan  neuzkan!
2m  nindukaan  /  /  heukan!  ginduzkaan  /  /  heuzkan!
2f  nindukanan  /  /  heukan!  ginduzkanan  /  /  heuzkan!
3S  nindukaen  hinduka  hinduka  zeukan!  ginduzkan  zinduzkan  zinduzkaten  zeuzkan!
1P  /  hindukagun  hindukagun  geneukan!  /  zinduzkagun  zinduzkategun  geneuzkan!
2h  nindukazun  /  /  zeneukan!  ginduzkazun  /  /  zeneuzkan!
2P  nindukazuen  /  /  zenucats!  ginduzkazuen  /  /  Zenituts!
3P  ninducats  hinducats  hinducats  zeukaten!  ginduzkaten  zinduzkaten  zinduzkate (te) n  zeuzkaten!


6.ekarri "carry, bring", tr. auxiliary verb, two-actant ("carry"):


Ag

\ Pt

 
Ag

\ Pt

Present
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  hakart  hakart  dakart  /  zakartzat  zakarztet  dakartzat
2m  nakark  /  /  dakark  gakartzak  /  /  dakartzak
2f  nakarna  /  /  dakarna  gakartzan  /  /  dakartzan
3S  nakar  hakar  hakar  dakar  gakartza  zakartza  zakarzte  dakartza
1P  /  hakargu  hakargu  dakargu  /  zakartzagu  zakarztegu  dakartzagu
2h  nakarzu  /  /  dakarzu  gakartzazu  /  /  dakartzazu
2P  nakarzue  /  /  dakarzue  gakartzazue  /  /  Dakartzue
3P  nakarte  hooked  hooked  dakarte  gakartzate  zakartzate  zakarzte (te)  dakartzate
 
preterite
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S         
2m         
2f         
3S         
1P         
2h         
2P         
3P         


7.ekarri "carry, bring", tr. auxiliary verb, three-actant ("bring") (present tense):


Ag

\ Adr

 
Ag

\ Adr

Patiens 3.Sg.
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  dakarkiat  dakarkinat  dakarkiot  /  dakarkizut  dakarizuet  dakarkiet
2m  dakarkidak  /  /  dakarkiok  dakarkiguk  /  /  dakarkiek
2f  dakarkidan  /  /  dakarkion  dakarkigun  /  /  dakarkia
3S  dakarkit  dakarkik  dakarkin  dakarkio  dakarkigu  dakarkizu  dakarkizue  dakarkie
1P  /  dakarkiagu  dakarkinagu  dakarkiogu  /  dakarkigu  dakarkizuegu  dakarkiegu
2h  dakarkiguk  /  /  dakarkiozu  dakarkiguzu  /  /  dakarkiezu
2P  dakarkigun  /  /  dakarkiozue  dakarkiguzue  /  /  dakarkiezue
3P  dakarkiguzu  dakarkiate  dakarkinate  dakarkiote  dakarkigute  dakarkizute  dakarkizute  dakarkiete
 
Patiens 3rd place
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  dakarzkiat  dakarzkinat  dakarzkiot  /  dakarzkizut  dakarizuet  dakarzkiet
2m  dakarzkidak  /  /  dakarzkiok  dakarzkiguk  /  /  dakarzkiek
2f  dakarzkidan  /  /  dakarzkion  dakarzkigun  /  /  dakarzkien
3S  dakarzkit  dakarzkik  dakarzkin  dakarzkio  dakarzkigu  dakarzkizu  dakarzkizue  dakarzkie
1P  /  dakarzkiagu  dakarzkinagu  dakarzkiogu  /  dakarzkigu  dakarzkizuegu  dakarzkiegu
2h  dakarzkiguk  /  /  dakarzkiozu  dakarzkiguzu  /  /  dakarzkiezu
2P  dakarzkigun  /  /  dakarzkiozue  dakarzkiguzue  /  /  dakarzkiezue
3P  dakarzkiguzu  dakarzkiate  dakarzkinate  dakarzkiote  dakarzkigute  dakarzkizute  dakarzkizute  dakarzkiete


8.ekarri "carry, bring", tr. auxiliary verb, three-actant ("bring") (simple past):


Ag

\ Adr

 
Ag

\ Adr

Patiens 3.Sg.
  1S 2m 2f 3S 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  nekarkian  nekarkinan  nekarkion  /  nekarkizun  nekarizuen  nekarkien
2m  hekarkidan  /  /  hekarkion  hekarkigun  /  /  hekarkien
2f  hekarkidan  /  /  hekarkion  hekarkigun  /  /  hekarkien
3S  zekarkidan  zekarkian  zekarkinan  zekarkion  zekarkigun  zekarkizun  zekarkizuen  zekarkien
1P  /  genekarkian  genekarkinan  genekarkion  /  genekarkizun  genekarkizuen  genekarkien
2h  zenekarkidan  /  /  zenekarkion  zenekarkigun  /  /  zenekarkien
2P  zenekarkidaten  /  /  zenekarkioten  zenekarkiguten  /  /  zenekarkieten
3P  zekarkidaten  zekarkiaten  zekarkinaten  zekarkioten  zekarkiguten  zekarkizuten  zekarkizueten  zekarkieten
 
Patiens 3rd place
  1S 2mf 2mf 3mS 1P 2h 2P  3
1S  /  nekarzkian  nekarzkinan  nekarzkion  /  nekarzkizun  nekarizuen  nekarzkien
2m  hekarzkidan  /  /  hekarzkion  hekarzkigun  /  /  hekarzkien
2f  hekarzkidan  /  /  hekarzkion  hekarzkigun  /  /  hekarzkien
3S  zekarzkidan  zekarzkian  zekarzkinan  zekarzkion  zekarzkigun  zekarzkizun  zekarzkizuen  zekarzkien
1P  /  genekarzkian  genekarzkinan  genekarzkion  /  genekarzkizun  genekarzkizuen  genekarzkien
2h  zenekarzkidan  /  /  zenekarzkion  zenekarzkigun  /  /  zenekarzkien
2P  zenekarzkidaten  /  /  zenekarzkioten  zenekarzkiguten  /  /  zenekarzkieten
3P  zekarzkidaten  zekarzkiaten  zekarzkinates  zekarzkioten  zekarzkiguten  zekarzkizuten  zekarzkizueten  zekarzkieten





Word order typology



According to J.H. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. In: ders. (Ed.), Universals of language. Cambridge, Mass. 1963, 73-113:

Six "logically .. possible orders .. three of which do not occur at all, or at least are excessively rare" (76):

SVO vs. SOV vs. VSO (vs. VOS vs. OSV vs. OVS)
Basis: 30 languages ​​(Basque, Serbian, Welsh, Norwegian, Modern Greek, Italian, Finnish; Yoruba, Nubian, Swahili, Fulani, Masai, Songhai, Berber; Turkish, Hebrew, Burušaski, Hindi, Kannaḍa, Japanese, Thai, Burmese, Malay ; Maori, Loritja; Maya, Zapotec, Quechua, Chibcha, Guarani).


45 universals:

1. In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object, the dominant order is almost always one in which the subject precedes the object.

2. In languages ​​with prepositions, the genitive almost always follows the governing noun, while in languages ​​with postpositions it almost always precedes.

3. Languages ​​with dominant VSO order are always prepositional.

4. With overwhelmingly greater than chance frequency, languages ​​with normal SOV or are postpositional.

5. If a language has dominant SOV order and the genitive follows the governing noun, then the adjective likewise follows the noun.

6. All languages ​​with dominant VSO or have SVO as an alternative or as the only alternative basic order.

7. If in a language with dominant SOV order there is no alternative basic order, or only OSV as the alternative, then all adverbial modifiers of the verb likewise precede the verb. (This is the "rigid" subtype of III.)

8th. When a yes-no question is differentiated from the corresponding assertion by an intonational pattern, the distinctive intonational features of each of these patterns is reckoned from the end of the sentence rather than the beginning.

9. With well more than chance frequency, when question particles or affixes are specified in position by reference to the sentence as a whole, if initial, such elements are found in prepositional languages ​​and, if final, in postpositional.

10. Question particles or affixes, specified in position by reference to a particular word in the sentence, almost always follow that word. Such particles do not occur in languages ​​with dominant or VSO.

11. Inversion of statement order so that verb precedes subject occurs only in languages ​​where the question word or phrase is normally initial. This same inversion occurs in yes-no questions only if it also occurs in interrogative word questions.

12. If a language has dominant order VSO in declarative sentences, it always puts interrogative words or phrases first in interrogative word questions; if it has dominant order SOV in declarative sentences, there is never such an invariant rule.

13. If the nominal object always precedes the verb, then verb forms subordinate to the main verb also precede it.

14. In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the conclusion as the normal order in all languages.

15. In expressions of volition and purpose, a subordinate verbal form always follows the main verb as the normal order except in those languages ​​in which the nominal object always precedes the verb.

16. In languages ​​with dominant order VSO, an inflected auxiliary always precedes the main verb. In languages ​​with dominant or SOV, an inflected auxiliary always follows the main verb.

17. With overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, languages ​​with dominant or VSO have the adjective after the noun.

18. When the descriptive adjective precedes the noun, the demonstrative and the numeral, with overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, do likewise.

19. When the general rule is that the descriptive adjective follows, there may be a minority of adjectives which usually precede, but when the general rule is that descriptive adjectives precede, there are no exceptions.

20. When any or all of the items - demonstrative, numeral, and descriptive adjective - precede the noun, they are always found in that order. If they follow, the order is either the same or its exact opposite.

21. If some or all adverbs follow the adjective they modify, then the language is one in which the qualifying adjective follows the noun and the verb precedes its nominal object as the dominant order.

22. If in comparisons of superiority the only order or one of the alternative orders is standard-marker-adjective, then the language is postpositional. With overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, if the only order is adjective-marker-standard, the language is prepositional.

23. If in apposition the proper noun usually precedes the common noun, then the language is one in which the governing noun precedes its dependent genitive. With much better than chance frequency, if the common noun usually precedes the proper noun, the dependent genitive precedes its governing noun.

24. If the relative expression precedes the noun either as the only construction or as an alternative construction, either the language is postpositional or the adjective precedes the noun or both.

25. If the pronominal object follows the verb, so does the nominal object.

26. If a language has discontinuous affixes, it always has either prefixing or suffixing or both.

27. If a language is exclusively suffixing, it is postpositional; if it is exclusively prefixing, it is prepositional.

28. If both the derivation and inflection follow the root, or they both precede the root, the derivation is always between the root and the inflection.

29. If a language has inflection, it always has derivation.

30. If the verb has categories of person-number or if it has categories of gender, it always has tense-mode categories.

31.