Is Powerwolf Christian or Satanic

Criss-cross. The use of the Christian cross in metal taking into account music-sociological, religious-scientific and marketing-specific aspects

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of figures

Appendix list

1 Introduction

2 methodology
2.1 Situation and position of the author
2.2 Methodical approach

3 Theoretical Foundations
3.1 Cross and crucifix
3.1.1 Etymological background
3.1.2 The hunter's cross and the mother's cross
3.1.3 The sacrificial cross
3.1.4 The cross of Jesus
3.1.5 Cross and crucifix in church history
3.1.6 Cross and crucifix in Christian art
3.2 Metal
3.2.1 Etymology and meaning of the term metal
3.2.2 History of the origins of metal
3.2.3 Development and differentiation of metal
3.3 semiotics
3.3.1 Meaning of the term semiotics
3.3.2 Syntactics, semantics, pragmatics - the three sub-disciplines of semiotics
3.3.3 Significant and Signified - The basic elements of the sign
3.3.4 Symbol, Icon, Index - The three types of characters
3.3.5 Cross and crucifix as symbols

4 Four functional aspects of the use of the Christian cross in metal based on Anna-Katharina Höpflinger
4.1 Overview
4.2 Normative and ideological aspect
4.3 Delimitation
4.4 Affiliation
4.5 Aestheticization
4.6 Interim conclusion: popular religion

5 challenges from using the Christian cross in metal
5.1 Overview
5.2 For God's sake, we are not Christians: A misunderstanding
5.3 The withdrawal of the cross: Between rebellion and habit
5.4 Borderline art: censorship and limits of cross representations

6 Semiotics Marketing - When Semiotics and Marketing Intersect
6.1 Relevance and definition of semiotic marketing
6.2 Semiotic Marketing according to Katsumi Hoshino
6.3 Meeting challenges with semiotic marketing

7 Conclusion

Appendix 1 “Marilyn Manson. Antichrist revisited "

Appendix 2 "Powerwolf interview by Markus Jakob for"

Appendix 3 "Declaration on honor"


Web sources

Image sources

List of figures

Fig. 1: Lower jaw with an inclined cross

Fig. 2: Inclined cross with vertical straight lines

Fig. 3: Coordinate cross

Fig. 4: Grid squares on coins

Fig. 5: Neolithic cross figure (Cyprus)

Fig. 6: Wheel cross on tombstone

Fig. 7: Anthropomorphic crosses with rigid, threatening features (Cyprus)

Fig. 8: Selection of Christian cross shapes

Fig. 9: Detail of the Isenheim Altarpiece (approx. 1505)

Fig. 10: Crucifix by Grosz (1928)

Fig. 11: Pioneers: Deep Purple (1968), Led Zeppelin (1968), Black Sabbath (1970)

Fig. 12: Heavy Metal: Motörhead (1976), Judas Priest (undated), Iron Maiden (1982)

Fig. 13: Testosterone vs. glitter: Manowar (1984), Mötley Crüe (1985)

Fig. 14: Drawing model according to de Saussure

Fig. 15: Drawing model after Peirce

Fig. 16: Stryper use Latin crosses in their stage show

Fig. 17: “Holy Wood” cover

Fig. 18: M. Manson's cross made of weapons

Fig. 19: Inverse cross in Black Metal: "Helvete" logo, Mayhem singer A. Csihar

Fig. 20: "Preachers Of The Night" cover

Fig. 21: O. Osbourne with cross chain

Fig. 22: Latin cross, crucifix and Christ monogram at Powerwolf

Fig. 23: Eric Clayton (Savior Machine) vs. Attila Dorn (Powerwolf)

Fig. 24: Censored "Holy Wood" cover

Fig. 25: "Fuck Me Jesus" T-Shirt

Fig. 26: "The Semiotic Marketing Process" by K. Hoshino

Fig. 27: "All Is One" cover

Fig. 28: Orphaned Land tape photo (2013)

Appendix list

Appendix 1: “Marilyn Manson. Antichrist revisited "

Appendix 2: "Powerwolf interview by Markus Jakob for"

Appendix 3: "Declaration on honor"

1 Introduction

Latin cross, Petrus cross, Christ monogram etc .: The Christian cross in its various forms has been part of its repertoire of symbols since the advent of metal in the seventies. This recourse to the Christian cross not only meets with approval, but also causes numerous controversies in which a wide variety of actors1 involved. Often the use of the Christian cross in metal is superficially dismissed as a mere provocation or a striking marketing measure. On closer analysis, however, it turns out to be an appealing, profound phenomenon that "criss-cross" leads to food for thought: How and why do metal bands integrate the Christian cross into their artistic work? What does the usage mean for the Christian religion? What challenges arise with this use, especially with regard to the interpretation for the recipient? And how can the challenges be met or even prevented with the help of semiotic marketing?

2 methodology

2.1 Situation and position of the author

The use of the Christian cross in metal has so far mainly been dealt with in relation to the Black Metal subculture2whereby a music-sociological and religious-scientific thematization that included all of metal was omitted. The author undertook the first attempt at such a comprehensive discussion in the context of the competition “Christianity and Culture” with his work “Kreuz und Quer. The cross and its meaning in the metal music style ”, with which he took third place in 2014. In the years that followed, during his music business studies at the Baden-Württemberg Pop Academy, the author expanded his specialist knowledge, particularly with regard to marketing-specific aspects. This resulted in new points of contact that are part of this work.

2.2 Methodical approach

After the author's position and the methodological approach have been clarified in the second chapter, the third chapter provides a theoretical overview of the topics of cross and crucifix and metal. Religious history, sociological and theological, as well as music history and sociological literature are used. In addition, an introduction to semiotics finds its place in this chapter in order to explain the classification of the Christian cross as a symbol or Symbol to clarify.

In the fourth chapter the topics cross and crucifix and metal are brought together. Based on Anna-Katharina Höpflinger's religious studies on the reception of religious codes in black metal, four functional aspects of the use of the Christian cross in metal are explained - the normative-ideological aspect, the demarcation, the affiliation and the aestheticization. It shows not only how, but above all for what reasons and with what intentions the Christian cross is used. In this part of the work the focus is on the production level3 using various bands and artists as examples. At the end of the chapter, on the basis of the knowledge gained, the question of what the handling of the Christian cross means for religion will be investigated.

The versatile use of the Christian cross in metal creates challenges of varying degrees. That is why the reception level moves in the fifth chapter4 and thus the view of the recipient in focus. What if the interpretations of the recipients do not correspond to the intentions of the producers and there are discrepancies? What if the use of the Christian cross in metal no longer has the desired effect on recipients? And what happens when art and censorship collide, or when a recipient comes to the conclusion from an internal perspective that there are limits to provocation?

The sixth chapter includes the marketing level by showing the connection between semiotics and marketing and working out the relevance for communication and product policy. In this part of the work both producers and recipients are thematized and thus the fourth and fifth chapters are linked. The model of the semiotic marketing process by Katsumi Hoshino shows that the development and communication of signs must be preceded by an analysis so that the signs can be interpreted by the recipient in the interests of the sender and satisfy his needs. An example is shown how semiotic marketing can be used to deal with challenges posed by the use of the Christian cross in metal.

In the last chapter the author formulates a personal conclusion on the use of the Christian cross in metal on the basis of the knowledge gained.

3 Theoretical Foundations

3.1 Cross and crucifix

3.1.1 Etymological background

The Greek word staurós denotes an upright pointed pole, which was used as an instrument of torture.5 At the crucifixion (Latin crucifigere), this post was supplemented by a crossbeam, creating the shape of a cross (Latin crux).6 The Latin word crux is the forerunner for the Old High German chruci as well as for the Middle High German kriuce. The word cross used today can be traced back to this.7

3.1.2 The hunter's cross and the mother's cross

In order to treat the cross in its Christian theological meaning in a well-founded manner, it is worth taking a cultural-historical look at the millennia-old history of the cross. Archaeological material recommends a division into a hunter's cross and a mother's cross.

One form of the hunter's cross is the oblique cross, which can be interpreted as a marker. The oldest incised drawing of an inclined cross was found in Wyhlen, Baden-Württemberg, and dates back 200,000 years to the Riss Cold Age. In the lower jaw of a hunted wild horse, two inclined crosses can be seen with which the hunter made it clear that the prey belongs to him. In addition, the hunter made a kind of signature, which documents that he hunted and killed the wild horse.8 Further archaeological finds of incised drawings in rock caves show an inclined cross, which is cut at the center by a vertical straight line. The theologian Georg Baudler mentions that this straight line could stand for the world axis in a three-dimensional world.9 The early humans used such drawings to mark not only the prey, but also the place where they killed it. Even today, couples in love often mark an object with a cross at the place where they met for the first time. The cross separates this place from other places and sees it as a significant space in which the respective person works and in which he has finally found the awareness of his transcendent meaning - the feeling of existence.10

Fig. 1: Lower jaw with an inclined cross11

Figure not included in this excerpt

Fig. 2: Inclined cross with vertical straight lines12

Figure not included in this excerpt

Another form of the hunter's cross is the coordinate cross. While the killing power is in the foreground with the oblique cross, the coordinate cross refers to the power to rule the world. This can be explained by looking at the case of a fossilized root leg that was found in 1964 near the Hungarian city of Tata.13 A right-angled cross carved by human hands can be seen there, dividing the rounded case into four parts. In the assumption that for early humans the round stood as a symbol for the universe, it is reasonable to suppose that by dividing the housing into four he divided the universe into coordinates and thereby an intellectual conquest of the world according to the divide et principle impera14 went along. On the basis of these cross coordinates, whole grid squares were created, which can be found, for example, on Greek drachmas and Celtic coins. The aspect of ruling and ruling from the supposed center of the world extends the original meaning of the hunter's cross as a marker to include the function of a ruler.15

Fig. 3: Coordinate cross16

Figure not included in this excerpt

Fig. 4: Grid squares on coins17

Figure not included in this excerpt

If a cross is to be described in which all the side lines are of the same length, the words equal-armed or isosceles are not infrequently used. An anthropomorphic meaning of the cross can be discerned not only in linguistic observation, but also in numerous archaeological finds. Such crosses in human form are called mother crosses.18 The finds on the south coast of Asia Minor, which can be dated to the Mesolithic Age, are among the oldest human crosses. Later mother crosses usually show a pregnant woman with arms outstretched. This expresses a mother-child relationship based on protection and comfort, fertility and vitality. This maternal life force can be found both in the ancient Egyptian Ankh symbol and in Neolithic cross figures that were found in Cyprus. While the hunter's cross marks the place of activity and rule, the mother's cross indicates a place where people are loved and welcomed with open arms; according to the religious philosopher Eugen Biser a "place of being with oneself"19.

Fig. 5: Neolithic cross figure (Cyprus)20

Figure not included in this excerpt

Fig. 6: Wheel cross on tombstone21

Figure not included in this excerpt

Based on the original shape of the mother cross, similar cross shapes developed, which were integrated into the rest of the symbolic world of the respective culture, such as the finial or the triangular cross from Çatalhöyük, Turkey.22 The development of the isosceles mother cross to the wheel cross and vertebral cross is remarkable, as these cross shapes can be used to establish a relationship between the mother cross and the hunter's cross. This reference can be explained using the example of the wheel cross on the capstone of a large stone grave from Klein-Meinsdorf in Schleswig-Holstein.23 A wheel cross can be seen on this grave, which resembles a coordinate cross and can therefore also be interpreted as a subdivision of the universe - the only difference is that the lines have been inclined here and therefore gives the impression that the cross is a wheel. The wheel cross thus shows a universe of growth and locomotion, which Baudler describes as a "whirling, forward-rushing movement"24 describes. In addition to the wheel cross, there are also hand drawings and sacrificial bowls on the grave site, which suggest that it is not just a grave but also a Paleolithic sacrificial site. Corresponding to the archaic religiosity, this cult site shows how the divine power takes a human sacrifice and thereby expresses a human-divine power to kill.25 In the end, the propelling life force of the mother cross is mixed with the wild killing power of the hunter's cross in an impressive way. It is therefore worthwhile to pursue the form of victim thinking.

3.1.3 The sacrificial cross

In Duden, the term victim is a. as a "giving of something or someone to a deity in a cultic act"26 Are defined. Taking into account the long-standing mother religion in India, the original aspect of sacrifice can be explained: life-giving deities such as Tara or Parvati were supplemented by the demonic-looking deity Kali, to whom human sacrifices were made even in the 20th century.27

Religious scholar David Kinsley sees the reason for these human sacrifices in the principle of reciprocity: “The ... perception that underlies these cultures seems to be that these goddesses, who are associated with fertility, must periodically be nourished themselves again. In order to give life, they must receive in the form of bloody sacrifices. "28 The idea prevailed that the motherly caring power, as it is expressed by the original mother cross, is only bestowed on people when the mother goddess has been induced to do so through awe-inspiring killing rituals or a disruption of the divine order is atoned for by a person has been. With this knowledge, Baudler also explains the rigid, threatening features of the mother goddesses from Cyprus, stylized as the mother cross, and “tree, stake and cross became the preferred place of human sacrifice”29. The sacrificial rite is thus to be associated with a fascination with violence based on divine awe right from the start. An aspect that was even more evident years later at the Roman crucifixion - so that a parallel can be drawn between the ritual killing of the sacrifice and the punitive execution.

Fig. 7: Anthropomorphic crosses with rigid, threatening features (Cyprus)30

Figure not included in this excerpt

The crucifixion, also known as the impalation, was a death penalty of particular cruelty that began in the 6th century BC. In Persia31 and reached the Romans via the Phoenicians32. It was carried out by hanging it on a pole, with or without a crossbar. In the first case, the arms were attached to the transom and the feet to the post with ropes or nails.33 Death often took days from circulatory collapse34 and in some cases it was accelerated by the bruising of the lower legs.35 The characteristic of this type of execution is that the crucified one was completely surrendered with open arms in the air.

A basic distinction is made between three forms of Roman crucifixion. The first form of execution, supplicium more maiorum, is referred to in the legends of the royal era. It can be described as an "execution (or atonement) in the manner of the ancestors"36 describe and apply to the free citizens of Rome. The second form of crucifixion, on the other hand, was only aimed at Roman citizens who seduced a vestal virgin. The difference to the first form of the crucifixion is that this execution was not ordered by the political authority, but by the religious authority - and thus by the Pontifex Maximus.37 The third and at the same time most common form of crucifixion is slave execution (lat. Servile supplicium). It was aimed at slaves, delinquents and rebels38 and was deliberately used by the state as a deterrent39. As an example, the mass crucifixion of around two thousand Jewish resistance fighters in the year 4 BC can be taken as an example. In Jerusalem.40 In contrast to the two forms of execution mentioned above, there were no specific rules for executing slaves, so that the condemned were completely at the mercy of the executioners. What all forms of crucifixion have in common, however, is that the victim was stripped and whipped.

3.1.4 The cross of Jesus

On the basis of the knowledge gained from the history of culture and religion, the Christian-theological meaning of the cross, resp. the crucifixion of Jesus. Because for Baudler the Jesus cross is "from the point of view of the initial situation a sacrificial cross: the mother symbol perverted to the place of the cruel human sacrifice"41.

Christian testimonies as well as Jewish and pagan historical sources attest to the life, work and death of the Jewish traveling preacher Jesus of Nazareth. When interpreting these sources, it is necessary to observe the prevailing forms of thought, language and narrative at the time in order to exegesis the contents - mainly the biblical texts in this chapter - accordingly.42 The evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke and John give the most detailed account of the personality of Jesus in the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament of the Bible.43 Taking the sources into account, the crucifixion of Jesus can be summarized as follows:

At the age of 30, Jesus of Nazareth was condemned by the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate to the servile supplicium, the crucifixion for rebels.44 The reason for the condemnation of the deeply religious Jew was his multiple claim to be the Messiah of Israel and thus God's Son - a claim that was interpreted as blasphemy (cf. Mk, 14: 63f).45 Together with two other convicts, Jesus was crucified on Golgata, a hill outside Jerusalem, after he had previously been mocked and mistreated by Roman soldiers (cf. Mk, 15: 16ff). But how can we explain that Christianity has drawn strength from this brutal execution for over two thousand years? The theologian Rainer Lachmann comes to the following conclusion: "Only the experience of the resurrection makes Jesus' death on the cross interesting and meaningful."46 Through the resurrection of Jesus and the overcoming of death expressed with it, the crucifixion of Jesus is now also associated with the aspect of redemption and salvation (cf. 1 Cor. 1:18).47 In soteriology48 Numerous interpretations of the death of Jesus have emerged over the centuries; be it the interpretation as atonement, representation, peace treaty, ransom or liberation.49

One of these varied interpretations is the satisfaction theory, which was coined by the philosopher Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century and which has developed across denominations into the normative doctrine of salvation of Western Christianity. According to this teaching, man's guilt towards God demands satisfaction - a satisfaction that man cannot afford.50 Since God is a God of love and justice at the same time, he on the one hand does not want to punish people, but on the other hand cannot refrain from satisfaction. For the theologian Heinz Zahrnt, "the incarnation of God is logically necessary"51. The incarnation of God in the form of Jesus Christ and his death as an atonement are interpreted as satisfaction, whereby the reconciliation of God and man is given.52 This interpretation of the death of Jesus is viewed by many non-Christians as bizarre and is also controversial in Christian theology.53

A more modern interpretation, the representation theory, focuses less on the aspect of righteousness than on the goodness of God and corresponds to most of the images and terms in the New Testament that deal with the death of Jesus. Zahrnt illustrates the idea of ​​substitution using several everyday examples, such as a nurse caring for a patient. In any case, one person stands up for another and his actions benefit him as a result.54 In substitution theory, this emphasis on devotion becomes more important and the essence of God is revealed on the cross from the perspective of love: God suffers with people precisely because of his love for the ungodly and stands on the side of those who suffer. So Jesus died of goodness.55

However, however Jesus' death on the cross is interpreted, it remains a deeply religious event for many people. This immense importance can also be seen in the death of the apostle Peter. Peter was one of the founders of the early church in Jerusalem and died a martyr's death in AD 67 during the persecution of Christians under Emperor Nero.56 According to tradition, Peter expressed a desire to be crucified upside down because he did not find himself worthy to die like Jesus.57

3.1.5 Cross and crucifix in church history

In the more than two thousand year history of Christianity, numerous cross forms have emerged in different contexts of use, which are subsumed in the following under the collective term of the Christian cross. In this sub-chapter a selection of forms of the Christian cross is presented.

The most popular form of the Christian cross is the Latin cross (Latin crux immissa), in which the horizontal axis intersects the vertical axis above the center. The use of the Latin cross is versatile. For example, it is part of the rosary - a pearl necklace used in the popular Catholic way of prayer58 - or it is generally worn as a pendant on a chain. The use of the Latin cross is not fundamentally in a purely religious context, as the association with the economically and strategically motivated medieval religious wars against unbelievers and heretics - the crusades - underpins.59

In contrast to the Latin cross, the crucifix (Latin cruci fixus) is provided with the body of Jesus.60 Crucifixes not only serve as a reminder of the Passion of Jesus Christ, but are also used in exorcisms. Since Pope Paul V established the course of exorcism in the liturgical book Rituale Romanum, the showing of the crucifix has been part of the regular exorcism rite in order to drive out an evil spirit in the name of Jesus Christ.61

Another form of the Christian cross is the inverse Latin cross with or without a body, which is also called the Petrus Cross. In the Roman Catholic tradition it refers to the martyrdom of the apostle Peter.62

In addition to the forms of the Christian cross with a crossbar, shapes with several crossbars also developed. The double cross (Latin crux gemina), a cross with two crossbars, has established itself as the patriarchal cross.63 This cross was given to patriarchs in Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem to express their metropolitan authority. The importance of the two crossbars in this context of use can be traced back to the outstanding dignity of the patriarchs, which exceeded that of the bishops.64

The Pope's cross has been an extension of the patriarchal cross since the 15th century. This papal emblem is characterized by three crossbars, which stand for the three main tasks of the papal office, sacred, directing and teaching. The triple cross can also be found in the Russian Orthodox Church and is called the Russian cross.65 In this form of the Christian cross, however, the three transverse bars are interpreted differently than in the papal cross. The upper crossbar represents the inscription on the cross (Latin titulus crucis), while the second bar represents the crossbar to which the hands of Jesus were attached. The sloping lower bar stands for the footstool on the cross (Latin suppedaneum).

Another cross shape that visually differs from the previously mentioned forms of the Christian cross is the Constantinian cross. It is also known as the Christ monogram and is used as a symbol for Christ and Christianity. The Constantinian cross is made up of the two first letters of the Greek word Christós, written on top of each other, namely Chi (written X) and Rho (written P). According to tradition, Emperor Constantine I is said to have had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the Christ monogram against his enemies in order to win (Latin in hoc signo vinces), whereupon he used it as a standard.66

Fig. 8: Selection of Christian cross shapes67

Figure not included in this excerpt

3.1.6 Cross and crucifix in Christian art

The oldest cross representations in Christian art date back to the end of the 3rd century, when the Constantinian cross became an integral part of painted sarcophagi. The cross was personified in the crucifix at the beginning of the 5th century, as evidenced by depictions of the crucifixion in the architecture of the Roman Catholic Church of St. Sabina in Rome.68 It is noteworthy that the expression of suffering was avoided in the representations. In the early days of Carolingian art towards the end of the 8th century, the crucifixion also found its way into book illumination, with the crucifixus being given youthful and victorious features. It was not until the following centuries that the aspect of suffering was taken up in Western art and - influenced by the Byzantine crucifix type - Jesus was depicted with gaunt facial features and a bowed head.69

Renewed changes can be observed with the beginning of the Renaissance, when artists placed increasing value on an anatomically correct body formation and nevertheless formed the crucifix more than ever before in early Christian art according to their individual feelings. In the 17th and 18th centuries there was an increase in expression, which was expressed, for example, in the deep sagging of the crucified body. Whereas in the 19th century models from earlier times were used70, the conception of the crucifix in Christian art of the 20th century was varied and the striving for abstraction led to new forms of expression, which works with Christian motifs by the German-American painter George Grosz illustrate.

Fig. 9: Detail of the Isenheim Altarpiece (approx. 1505)71

Figure not included in this excerpt

Fig. 10: Crucifix by Grosz (1928)72

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3.2 Metal

3.2.1 Etymology and meaning of the term metal

The term heavy metal literally translated from English means heavy metal and initially suggests less of music than of the periodic table of chemical elements. Only a (music) historical consideration of the term makes it clear how music can be associated with heavy metal.

It is widely believed that the word heavy metal comes from the 1959 novel "Naked Lunch" by the American writer William S. Burroughs. Burroughs did not use the term there and first introduced it to popular culture in the novel “Nova Express” by describing the characters of his science fiction story, for example, “The Heavy Metal Kid” or “Heavy Metal People Of Uranus "called.73 Due to the fact that the American music journalist Lester Bangs mentioned this novel in an article about the band Black Sabbath published in 1972, some music historians see this - more or less loose - connection as the origin of the genre name Heavy Metal.74

In Steppenwolf's biker hymn “Born To Be Wild”, the heavy metal term appears for the first time in a song lyrics when the word “heavy metal thunder” is mentioned. Songwriter Mars Bonfire wanted to use this phrase to describe the experience of driving a motorcycle on a highway in California and experiencing the heaviness and noise of a powerful vehicle.75 The association of the term with loudness and massiveness also corresponds to the interpretation of the American music sociologist Robert Walser, who in his derivation of the term refers to the Oxford English Dictionary of 1882: “Heavy metal, guns or shot of large size; hence, fig. ... a person or persons of great ability or power, mental or bodily; used generally of one who is or is to be another's opponent in any contest. "76 He shows that as early as the 19th century the term was used not only as a chemical name for heavy metals, but also as a metaphor for heavy military equipment in English military terminology. In addition, the terminology is related to human characteristics such as physical control, power and strength, which Walser used in the figurative phrase "a man of heavy metal"77 summarizes. On the basis of this meaning, Burroughs, Bangs and Steppenwolf probably used the term heavy metal independently of one another, although they all wanted to express the characteristics of hardness and power with it78 - Properties that are still among the central features of this art form to this day.

For better understanding, the term heavy metal is reduced to the short form metal in the context of this work, as numerous subgenre have emerged in the past decades and the term heavy metal is mostly only used for the original form of this music.79 In addition, metal is understood as a style and culture of music, as it enables the history of music, culture and music-sociological connections to be understood.

3.2.2 History of the origins of metal

Before the development of metal from the seventies onwards can be discussed in a substantiated manner, it is necessary to take a look at the music-historical basis.

The roots of metal go back to the blues, "the passionate music of the poor, rural African-Americans in the southern states of the USA"80. Due to the influences of jazz and swing, the blues was given a new accent, which resulted in the rhythmically tightened Rhythm & Blues.81 From this form of Afro-American light music, rock 'n' roll developed in the fifties, when white musicians such as Pat Boone, Elvis Presley or Bill Haley interpreted the hits of black artists and among others. mixed with elements of country music.82 Since its inception, rock 'n' roll has been associated with breaking social conventions; be it because of the softening of the then strict separation between “black” and “white” music or with regard to the sexual gestures and allusions of some musicians.

At the beginning of the sixties there were also important impulses for rock music from Europe, resp. England, and bands like The Beatles or The Dave Clark Five stormed the US charts - the "British Invasion" was in full swing.83 But also bands of the British rhythm & blues tradition such as The Rolling Stones or The Yardbirds celebrated success in the USA and developed the existing musical categories further; their music was harder, wilder and louder.84 After the end of the beat era at the end of the sixties, a stylistic successor was established with rhythm & blues-oriented rock music, which includes not only artificial art rock and classic rock but also hard rock.85


1 For reasons of readability and clarity, the explicit mention of both gender forms is dispensed with in this thesis.

2 See Berndt, S. (2012): God hates the disciples of lies. An experiment about metal and Christianity. Metal as a social phenomenon of time with ethical and religious implications, Hamburg; Höpflinger, A.-K. (2017): Aesthetic, Identificatory, Normative. The Function of the Reception of Religious Codes in Black Metal, In: Analyzing Black Metal. Transdisciplinary approach to a gloomy phenomenon in musical culture, Chaker, S. (Ed.) Et al., Bielefeld, in print - with the kind permission of the author.

3 In the following, the actors involved on the production level are referred to as producers. This includes, for example, bands and artists.

4 The actors involved at the reception level are referred to below as recipients. These include, for example, fans, media representatives or actors who are far from the scene.

5 See Riesner, R. (1990): Kreuz / Kreuzigung. Archäologische, In: Das große Bibellexikon, 2nd volume, Burkhardt, H. (Hrsg.) Et al., 2nd edition, Wuppertal, pp. 840-842, here p. 840.

6 See Ernst, M. (1985): Kreuz. Concept and form, In: The Bible. The great reference work in color, 1st volume, Stubhann, M. (Ed.) 1st edition, Salzburg, p. 401.

7 See Läpple, A. (1996): Kleines Lexikon des Christian Customs, 1st edition, Augsburg, p. 136.

8 See Baudler, G. (1997): Das Kreuz. History and meaning, 1st edition, Düsseldorf, p. 34ff.

9 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 36.

10 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 37.

11 Source Fig. 1 see image sources.

12 Source Fig. 1 see image sources.

13 Cf. König, M. E. P. (1973): At the beginning of the culture. The Sign Language of Early Man, 1st ed., Berlin, p. 41f.

14 The phrase divide et impera (Latin for divide and rule) means dividing up what is to be conquered and defeated. This principle became known through its application in the organization of the Roman Empire and Roman foreign policy. The individual member states only had treaties with the central power of Rome and the peoples still to be ruled were divided into sub-groups so that they could be better defeated.

15 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 51ff.

16 Source Fig. 3 see image sources.

17 Source Fig. 4 see image sources.

18 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 70ff.

19 Biser, E. (1996): Man. The unfulfilled promise. Draft of a modal anthropology, 2nd edition, Düsseldorf, p. 41.

20 Source Fig. 5 see image sources.

21 Source Fig. 6 see image sources.

22 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 103ff.

23 See Maringer, J. (1980): The cross as a sign and symbol in the pre-Christian world, 1st edition, Bonn, p. 45.

24 Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 113.

25 Johannes Maringer mentions that the carved hand and foot images are seen as symbols of divine epiphanies. See Maringer, J. (1980): loc. Cit., P. 42.

26 o.V. (undated): Sacrifice, Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, URL:, 09/20/17.

27 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 151f.

28 Kinsley, D. (1990): Indian Goddesses. Female deities in Hinduism, 1st edition, Frankfurt a.M., p. 200.

29 Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 149.

30 Source Fig. 7 see image sources.

31 See Läpple, A. (1996): loc. Cit., Augsburg, p. 136.

32 Cf. Betz, O. (1998): Kreuz, In: Evangelisches Lexikon für Theologie und Gemeinde, 2. Bd., Burkhardt, H. / Swarat U. (Ed.), 2. Aufl., Wuppertal, S. 1178- 1179.

33 Cf. Ernst, M. (1985): Kreuzigung, In: op. Cit., 1st volume, Stubhann, M. (Ed.) 1st edition, Salzburg, p. 401.

34 See Günter, W. (2007): Taube, Löwe, Kreuz und Anker. Christian symbols and their meaning, 1st edition, Wuppertal, p. 60.

35 See Schirrmacher, T. (2002): Keyword crucifixion, In: Harenberg Lexikon der Religionen. The religions and denominations of the world. Their significance in history, everyday life and society, Schirrmacher, T. et al., 1st edition, Dortmund, p. 36.

36 Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 185.

37 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 185.

38 Cf. Betz, O. (1998): Kreuz, In: op. Cit., 2nd volume, Burkhardt, H. / Swarat, U. (ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, p. 1178.

39 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 191.

40 See Läpple, A. (1996): loc. Cit., Augsburg, p. 136.

41 Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 194.

42 Cf. Rahner, K./Vorgrimler, H. (1966): Kleines Konzilskompendium, 16th ed., Freiburg, p. 374.

43 Cf. Stubhann, M. (1985): Jesus Christ, In: loc. Cit., 1st vol., Stubhann, M. (Ed.) 1st ed., Salzburg, pp. 339-341, here 339.

44 See Läpple, A. (1996): loc. Cit., P. 135.

45 Cf. Betz, O. (1998): Kreuz, In: op. Cit., 2nd volume, Burkhardt, H. / Swarat, U. (ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, p. 1178.

46 Lachmann, R. (1999): Cross / Crucifixion of Jesus, In: Theological key terms. Biblical - systematic - didactic, 1st volume, Adam, G. / Lachmann, R. / Ritter, W. (Ed.), 1st edition, Göttingen, pp. 202-217, here 202.

47 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 267.

48 Soteriology is the doctrine of the salvation of people in a Christian context. The term is made up of the terms redemption (Greek soteria) and word (Greek logos).

49 Cf. Zahrnt, H. (1977): Why I believe. My cause with God, 1st edition, Munich, p. 139.

50 See Haacker, K. (1998): Justification. The christological basis, In: op. Cit., 3rd vol., Burkhardt, H. / Swarat, U. (ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, p. 1661.

51 Zahrnt, H. (1977): loc. Cit., P. 139.

52 See Hahn, E. (1998): Sühne, In: a.a.O., 3rd volume, Burkhardt, H. /, Swarat, U. (Ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, p. 1936.

53 See o.V. (2009): Why did Jesus Christ die on the cross ?, WeltN24 GmbH, URL:, 09/22/17.

54 See Zahrnt, H. (1977): loc. Cit., Pp. 140f.

55 See Zahrnt, H. (1977): loc. Cit., Pp. 142f.

56 See Thiede, C.-P. (1998): Petrus. Apostel, In: loc. Cit., 2nd volume, Burkhardt, H. / Swarat, U. (ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, pp. 1550-1551.

57 See o.V. (2008): Apostle Peter as representative of God, Second German Television, URL:, 09/22/17.

58 See Schirrmacher, T. (2002): Rosenkranz, In: a.a.O., Schirrmacher, T. et al., 1st edition, Dortmund, p. 231.

59 See Asbridge, T. (2016): Die Kreuzzüge, 7th edition, Stuttgart, p. 403ff.

60 See Haedeke, H.-U. (1960): Der Kruzifixus, In: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 4th volume, Galling, K. (Ed.), 3rd edition, Tübingen, pp. 47-49, here p. 47.

61 Cf. Ernst, M. (1985): Exorzismus, In: loc. Cit., 1st vol., Stubhann, M. (Ed.) 1st ed., Salzburg, p. 196.

62 See Thiede, C.-P. (1998): Petrus. Apostel, In: loc. Cit., 2nd volume, Burkhardt, H. / Swarat, U. (ed.), 2nd edition, Wuppertal, pp. 1550-1551.

63 Cf. Heinz-Mohr, G. (1998): Lexicon of Symbols. Images and signs of Christian art, Munich, pp. 179f.

64 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 91f.

65 See Heinz-Mohr, G. (1998): loc. Cit., Munich, p. 180.

66 See Schirrmacher, T. (2002): Keyword Christ monogram, In: a.a.O., Schirrmacher, T. et al., 1st edition, Dortmund, p. 21.

67 Source Fig. 8 see image sources.

68 See Haedeke, H.-U. (1960): Der Kruzifixus, In: op. Cit., 4th volume, Galling, K. (Ed.), 3rd edition, Tübingen, pp. 47- 49, here p. 47.

69 See Haedeke, H.-U. (1960): Der Kruzifixus, In: op. Cit., 4th volume, Galling, K. (Ed.), 3rd edition, Tübingen, pp. 47- 49, here p. 48.

70 See Baudler, G. (1997): loc. Cit., P. 340f.

71 Source Fig. 9 see image sources.

72 Source Fig. 10 see image sources.

73 See Walser, R. (1993): Running With The Devil. Power, Gender, And Madness In Heavy Metal Music, Hanover, p. 8.

74 See Wehrli, R. (2005): Verteufelter Heavy Metal. Scandals and censorship in modern music history, 2nd edition, Münster, p. 16.

75 See Weinstein, D. (1991): Heavy Metal. A Cultural Sociology, New York, p. 19.

76 Walser, R. (1993): loc. Cit., Hanover, p. 1.

77 Walser, R. (1993): loc. Cit., Hanover, p. 1.

78 See Berndt, S. (2012): loc. Cit., Hamburg, p. 50.

79 See Herr, M. (1990): Matthias Herr's Heavy Metal Lexikon Vol. 2, Berlin, p. 12.

80 Wehrli, R. (2005): loc. Cit., P. 16.

81 See Fuchs, A./Majewski, C. (2000): Black Metal. Music-sociological analysis of the forms and content of presentation of a subculture, Hamburg, p. 11.

82 See Wehrli, R. (2005): loc. Cit., P. 17.

83 See Fuchs, A./Majewski, C. (2000): loc. Cit., P. 13.

84 See Lücker, C. (2013): The Heavy Metal phenomenon. A scene portrait, 2nd edition, Oberhausen, p. 18.

85 See Fuchs, A./Majewski, C. (2000): loc. Cit., P. 13.

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