Why should countries have borders

State borders

A state border defines the territory of the state.
It is a line between two states.

This line is visible on a map, for example.
In reality, however, one often cannot see the state border.
State borders exist on land, at sea or in a river or lake.
The territory of a state ends at the state border. If you go or drive across the state border, you come to another state.
Sometimes this is different in the sea.

The rules of a state only apply within the state's borders.

A person who travels from one state to another has to cross the state border. Sometimes it is only allowed to cross the border in specific places. These places are called border crossings.
In most countries in the world you have to show your ID or passport at border crossings if you want to cross the border.

Some state borders are also secured by fences or walls. So nobody can secretly go to the other state.

Many borders are open in the European Union.
You can easily go to another country in the European Union. Most of the time there is no control at the border. You don't need to show a passport at the border. For special reasons, the border can be checked again for a certain period of time.

Germany shares national borders with 9 other countries.
These states are:
  • Denmark,
  • Poland,
  • Czech Republic,
  • Austria,
  • Switzerland,
  • France,
  • Luxembourg,
  • Belgium,
  • Netherlands

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