What is the powerful political system

Zeitbilder 8, textbook

A democracy based on the western model L Democracy in Austria is formally guaranteed by the fact that there are clear rules for the appointment of power, control of power and the transfer of power. The rulers are appointed by the ruled. (...) The ruled determine who actually ruled them. At least theoretically, they determine according to which rules and with which goals this happens. In this sense Austria is a democracy. In this sense, of course, there are also power relations; there are powerful groups and powerful people. And that's why there are powerless groups and powerless people. (Pelinka, Daspolitische System Österreichs, 1981, p. 282) Explain who the rulers, who the ruled, who the powerful, who the powerless in Austria are. The Austrian political system is based on the parliamentary democracies with capitalist economic forms that have developed in the “West” since the First World War: L On the one hand, there is a liberal-democratic subsystem in which democracy is primarily in form a party competition is realized. The battle for votes is decisive. On the other hand, there is a liberal-capitalist sub-system that is primarily geared towards economic success. Here the principle of private ownership of the means of production is retained in principle. And the principle is: whoever has more also counts more. (Pelinka, Daspolitische System Österreichs, 1981, p. 281 f.) Political competition and its functioning are only largely regulated by the constitution (laws). It takes place within, but also outside of, the organs provided for by the constitution. Austria - federal state and EU member In a federal state like Austria, political decisions are made at different levels: Many important decisions are made in the federal capital Vienna. This is where the highest constitutional bodies have their seat. Politics is also made at the level of the federal states and municipalities. B. the states of the USA or the federal states of Germany. Since Austria joined the EU (1995), EU law has priority over national law. The Austrian state must also comply with the rules of this overarching political system. This restricts the autonomous, i.e. nation-state, room for maneuver. To this end, Austria, as a member state, has the option of co-determination and participation at EU level. Parliament and government Article 1 of the Federal Constitutional Act of 1920 stipulated: “Austria is a democratic republic. Their rights are based on the people. ”That is why the government is also responsible to the National Council, the chamber of parliament that is directly elected by the people. The government is formally appointed by the Federal President. But the constitutional reality shows that only those parties that achieve a majority of the 183 mandates in the elections to the National Council normally also constitute the federal government (exception: a “minority government” such as 1970/71; p. 18 ). 1. Austria - a parliamentary democracy Constituent session of the National Council with the election of the new presidium. Photo, Vienna, November 9, 2017. 30 For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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