What fruits did you eat yesterday?
Tick how many servings you ate or drank yesterday. total
2 5 a day Fruit and vegetables are the motto for a modern, healthy diet. Nutrition experts and scientific studies confirm that five servings of fruit and vegetables per day have a positive effect on health. But just knowing about it is not enough. Children, adolescents and adults must also be motivated to do something for their health with pleasure and joy. These findings prompted health organizations and commercial enterprises to start the 5 a day campaign in Germany. The common goal is to motivate children, adolescents and adults to consume more fruit and vegetables on a regular basis and thus to improve the health of the population over the long term. It is crucial for the health-promoting effect that not only occasional fruit and vegetables are eaten, but that the diet is permanently changed. Not only one favorite fruit or vegetable should dominate the 5; it is important that all the diversity comes into play. Fruit and vegetables are far too rarely on the table. The current nutrition report of the German Nutrition Society shows that on average only half the recommended amount is eaten. Insufficient grade for the nutrition of German citizens! Fruit and vegetables provide us with important vitamins and minerals, some of which are not or barely contained in other foods. Green vegetables such as broccoli, spinach and endive lettuce in particular offer a lot of folic acid, a vitamin that is important for blood formation and with which we are rather poorly supplied. Vitamin C and beta-carotene are found almost exclusively in this food group. The secondary plant substances that have been researched in recent years are particularly important; they are found in great diversity in fruit and vegetables and make a decisive contribution to the positive effects of fruit and vegetables on health. Secondary plant substances These are the names of a number of chemically very different substances in plants that are formed in the so-called secondary metabolism of plants. They are coloring, smelling and flavoring substances that only occur in low concentrations, but can have enormous effects. This effectiveness has stimulated researchers all over the world to conduct research in recent years. About different phytochemicals are currently known, about different ones we take in with food. More than 250 scientific studies gave impressive indications of the cancer-preventive effect and the positive influence on cardiovascular diseases. According to these findings, the secondary plant substances stand next to the primary plant substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins. Although everyone is talking about them theoretically, they are not yet practical. That should change. 5 a day goes to school Eating and drinking properly is an important prerequisite for concentrated learning and of course for health. The school has an important role to play in communicating health issues. With all the theoretical background, the learning content on these topics can be conveyed in a pleasantly practical, playful, lively and enjoyable way. The appealing and convincing passing on of the 5 a day information ideally leads not only to a change in eating habits, but also to the fact that the message is passed on. Also start at 5 a day in your class. The slides to 5 a day makes school are versatile. Depending on your age and performance level, you may only choose a selection. The booklet informs you about the background to 5 a day and offers suggestions for implementation in the classroom, which you can also accept or modify depending on the class.
3 Slide 1 Content: The 5 a day campaign shows consumers a simple goal: to eat one serving of fruit and vegetables five times a day. A portion is simply measured in handfuls. Handy fruit and vegetables such as apples or kohlrabi are a handful and therefore one serving. For small fruits such as berries or chopped vegetables, two handfuls are a serving. With five servings, the quantities behind the handful roughly correspond to the nutritional recommendations of 250 g of fruit and 400 g of vegetables and salad. Fresh vegetables should ideally be consumed partly as raw vegetables and partly cooked. Some vitamins and phytochemicals are reduced in their effectiveness when heated, while others can be more easily absorbed by the body from heated products. Many vegetables can be eaten raw, but some cannot. These include beans and eggplant. They contain toxins that are only destroyed by heat. An otherwise low-fat and varied diet is recommended, without strict rules that are more of a deterrent. The requirements for fruit and vegetable products that carry the label 5 a day, or for menus recommended as a 5 a day dish, are precisely defined: 1 Content of at least one portion of fruit or vegetables 2 Maximum fat content: 3% 3 Maximum added sugar: 5% of the sugar content of the basic foodstuff Potatoes are not considered vegetables in campaign 5 a day, although the tubers come under this category both botanically and commercially. The valuable potato has a higher carbohydrate and calorie content than other vegetables and belongs to a group with bread and cereal products (see nutrition circle). With the 5 a day diet you can choose between fresh and processed products such as frozen food, canned and canned food and dried fruit. A serving a day can also be a glass of juice. However, nectar or fruit juice drinks are not included because of their lower fruit content. You always have 100% fruit content when the sales description includes the name juice, for example apple juice or carrot juice. Methodical and didactic advice: Discuss statement 5 a day with the class and the health campaign of the same name with its background. Start by polling who knows the campaign or message 5 a day. Questions: What does 5 a day mean? Do you know reasons and statements that speak for 5 a day? Which are they? How do you know 5 a day? What do you think of Campaign 5 a day? We are interested in the survey results. Send the results to the association by, fax or post. You take part in the monthly raffle for five 5 a day cookbooks. 4th
4 Slide 2 Use slide 2 to explain the principle of handfuls and counting portions. The variety of fruits and vegetables also plays a role, which makes it easy to give this food group a large place in the daily diet. Test the class for knowledge of fruit and vegetable names. Collect fruits and vegetables that fit perfectly in one hand and make one serving (e.g. apple, pear, large tomato, orange, banana, peach, small kohlrabi, bell pepper). which when placed in two hands as whole fruit makes one serving (e.g. strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, peas, radishes, Brussels sprouts). where a serving is two handfuls of small pieces (e.g. pineapple, cucumber, zucchini, radish, various types of lettuce and cabbage). Analyze with the students the variety of fresh fruit and vegetables on offer and their processed products (e.g. peas or tangerines in a can and in a glass, sauerkraut in a foil bag, fruit and vegetable juices, frozen goods and ready meals). How many servings of fruit and vegetables did the students eat yesterday? Do the 5 a day check with your class. Discuss how easy it is to do 5 a day continuously. Go into the individual likes and dislikes. How does each student imagine achieving the goal of five servings of fruit and vegetables a day? Learning objectives: The pupils get to know the message 5 a day. know how easy it is to measure a portion. can divide fruits and vegetables into those that make one hand or two hands as a portion. know the 5 a day principle of counting. reflect sizes, shapes and variety of fruits and vegetables. assess their eating habits with regard to fruit and vegetables. feel motivated to educate family members, friends and acquaintances over 5 a day. 5
5 Worksheet Check yourself! Tick how many servings you ate or drank yesterday. Total evaluation: 0 1 point Oh, oh, that doesn't look good! We urgently need more fruit and vegetables. Start with a glass of juice every day and your favorite vegetables, and try to eat a little more fruits and vegetables every day! 2 3 points This is a good start; But you are still missing at least two servings a day. Are you looking for a fruit or vegetable variant that you have neglected so far and with which you can get closer to 5 a day: dried fruit or salad, some raw vegetables, a vegetable side dish? Have more! from 4 points You are a fruit and vegetable fan that is a good thing. You are well on the way to optimizing your diet. 5 a day is an important goal. By the way, you can't eat enough of the delicious fruits and vegetables. The more the better.
6 Slide 3 EW F Contents: Fruit and vegetables are an essential part of a balanced diet. The Nutrition Circle shows what it means to eat properly, balanced and varied. The breakdown is based on the recommendations for nutrient intake of the DGE (German Society for Nutrition): 55% of the total energy intake should come from carbohydrates, 30% from fat and 15% from protein. The group of cereals, cereal products and potatoes forms an essential basis in the diet: it should be around five slices of bread a day, preferably whole grain bread, cereals (flakes) and a serving of potatoes, pasta or rice. Vegetables, pulses and fruit make up two large, important groups in the nutritional circle: five servings a day, including three servings of vegetables (cooked, raw and as a lettuce) and two servings of fruit are the recommendations. For example, 1/4 liter of low-fat milk or yogurt and three slices of cheese belong on the table of milk and dairy products every day. Fish, meat and eggs do not have to be every day: spread over the week, a portion of fish, up to three eggs and about g of meat or sausage are sufficient. We only need a little fat: a maximum of 40 g per day, i. H. two tablespoons of spreadable fat and two tablespoons of vegetable oil, e.g. B. rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, olive oil. It is important to drink a lot: 1.5 liters of liquid daily, preferably unsweetened. Methodical and didactic tips: Use the slide to work out the composition of a balanced diet with the students. The group of fruits and vegetables is of particular importance. How does it look in reality? The current DGE nutrition report shows that in Germany the following quantities from the individual food groups are consumed on average per day: 340 g bread, baked goods, potatoes and nutrients (rice, pasta, etc.) 322 g 150 g fruit and fruit products 173 g 120 g vegetables and vegetable products 138 g 240 g milk and dairy products 217 g 145 g meat and sausage (approx. 1 kg per week) 116 g 18 g eggs (approx. 2 eggs per week) 17 g 50 g fats and oils 40 g 63 g confectionery 43 g 800 g drinks 590 g (of which 300 g alcoholic drinks) (of which 160 g alcoholic drinks) Compare the actual with the target (nutritional group) and discuss the results. What is the nutritional behavior of the students themselves? Have a self-assessment done. Look for solutions and suggestions for changes so that better nutrition is achieved. For example, go through the individual meals of the day: breakfast, lunch, dinner and various snacks. KH learning objectives: The pupils know how to put together a healthy and balanced diet. know how large the proportion of fruit and vegetables in the nutritional group, the image of the nutritional recommendation, is. Compare the actual and target of the diet. 7th
7 Slide 4 Content: Fruits and vegetables contain many valuable ingredients. With a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, the intake of fiber, vitamins, minerals and secondary plant substances increases. The consumption of other, higher-fat foods decreases and with it the calorie intake. Vitamin C strengthens the immune system, helps build connective tissue and bones and can prevent the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines. Fruits and vegetables contain a lot of vitamin C, especially peppers, broccoli, currants, fennel, cauliflower, oranges, strawberries and tomatoes. Vitamin A contributes to the development of cells and is therefore particularly important for the skin. Healthy skin and mucous membranes are less susceptible to germs and pathogens. Plants contain beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the body. Carrots, kale, fennel, spinach, chicory, apricots, mango, peppers, broccoli and tomatoes contain a lot of beta-carotene. Vitamin K is necessary for the formation of blood clotting factors. Kale, Brussels sprouts and other types of cabbage, as well as spinach, provide a lot of vitamin K. Folic acid is indispensable for the formation and division of new cells and thus also for the blood cells. Folate keeps blood vessels healthy and lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease. Vegetables, especially all types of cabbage, spinach, broccoli, asparagus, leek, fennel and lettuce, are the main sources of folic acid. Iron is an essential component of the blood and muscle pigment and transports oxygen through the blood. Spinach, Swiss chard, legumes, fennel, lamb's lettuce, carrots and broccoli are particularly iron-rich vegetables. Magnesium acts in the transmission of stimuli from nerves to muscles and in muscle contraction. There is a lot of magnesium in legumes such as peas, beans and lentils as well as in Swiss chard, spinach, kohlrabi and bananas. Potassium is especially important for the heart to function. It is found in large quantities in spinach, mushrooms, kohlrabi, Swiss chard, legumes, tomatoes, bananas, cherries and asparagus. Dietary fiber is an almost indigestible component of plant-based food. It stimulates chewing, filling the stomach and filling, swelling in the large intestine, accelerating the intestinal passage and thus preventing constipation. Methodical and didactic advice: Discuss the ingredients of fruit and vegetables with the class. You can use the next slide to go into more detail about the secondary plant substances. The pupils develop advertising messages and an advertising poster or advertising display with statements about the positive effects of 5 a day. This can be done using various techniques, e.g. B. in the form of a drawing or magazine collage, with a photo or film camera, on the computer, etc. If the computer is appropriately equipped, you can design an Internet presence with the students for 5 a day. The association 5 am Tag e will support you in this. V. gladly with picture and text material. In groups, analyze various shopping leaflets or various grocery stores with regard to the range, placement, presentation, variety and prices of fruits and vegetables. Questions: What could be improved in terms of 5 a day? How could the message 5 a day be conveyed to customers? Learning objectives: The pupils know the valuable ingredients that are particularly abundant in fruit and vegetables. get to know the tasks of these ingredients. analyze the supply of fruits and vegetables. deal with conveying positive messages about 5 fruits and vegetables a day. independently develop media 5 times a day. 8th
8 Slide 5 Slide 6 Content: Some secondary plant substances are found in foods, of which only about 100 have been researched in more detail. Fruit and vegetables in particular contain an abundant and varied number of these valuable substances. The best known are carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin), polyphenols (flavonoids, phenols, phenolic acids, isoflavonoids), glucosinolates, sulfides, monoterpenes, saponins, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, carotenoids, which give red fruits their typical yellow color. Beta-carotene, one of the particularly effective carotenoids, can be converted into vitamin A by the body. Carotenoids are mainly found in carrots, pumpkins, red peppers, tomatoes, apricots and honeydew melons, but also in green vegetables such as fennel, broccoli, spinach, chicory and kale. They show their effectiveness in scavenging radicals and in inhibiting the tumor-promoting phase. Some carotenoids such as beta-carotene can stimulate the immune system, which in turn fights tumor cells. Polyphenols include numerous other compounds such as flavonoids, phenols and phenolic acids. Flavonoids achieve typical red-violet colorations like in red cabbage, peppers, tomatoes, grapes or apples. The antioxidant abilities of flavonoids are described with the lowering of the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Microbial and anti-carcinogenic effects are also known.Sulphides are sulfur-containing compounds that are particularly abundant in onion plants, for example in garlic, onions, leeks, chives and shallots. The sulfides are easy to recognize by their typical smell and taste. Sulphides have an antimicrobial effect, so they can kill germs. Studies suggest that sulfides can protect against stomach cancer in particular. They intervene especially in the first phase of cancer development. Glucosinolates occur exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, to which z. B. types of cabbage such as white cabbage, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, kohlrabi, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and broccoli, but also in radishes, radishes and cress. There is a link between high consumption of foods rich in glucosinolate and a low risk of developing cancer. The breakdown products of the glucosinolates influence the process of cancer formation in many ways. They also have an antimicrobial effect, for example on the urinary tract. Cancer development is a gradual, gradual process. A tumor develops from a body cell in several phases. It is triggered when the genetic material of a cell is damaged by a certain event. Tumor promotion (promotion) happens when the cell with the changed genetic material begins to divide further. In the progression phase, the tumor cells continue to divide and possibly form metastases. There are options for intervention in all phases and secondary plant substances have good potential. When a tumor is triggered, glucosinolates or sulfides, for example, can stimulate the body's own detoxification processes to render cancerous substances ineffective. Other plant substances, e.g. B. Polyphenol protect the DNA from manipulation by attaching itself to sensitive areas. In turn, other phytochemicals such as phenolic acids can bind carcinogenic substances to themselves, which then no longer attack the cells. The immune system in particular can fight cells with altered genetic material. Secondary plant substances such as carotenoids can stimulate immune cells to react. 9
9 Methodological and didactic tips: Treat the occurrence and effects of exemplary representatives of secondary plant substances using slides 5 and 6. Some secondary plant substances can be clearly seen, smelled and tasted. Have students take the taste and smell tests. Test whether typical representatives of the processed groups of phytochemicals can be recognized with blindfolded eyes. You can of course expand the experiments with numerous other types of fruit and vegetables. It's not child's play. How many adults are unable to blindly guess foods by smell or taste alone? It becomes particularly difficult when exotic fruits are added. Action: the 5 a day reporter: With the help of worksheet 5 a day check-up, the pupils conduct a survey at school, in the grocery store or on the street. The students organize the planning, implementation and evaluation independently in groups. The questions can be expanded as required. For example: Which fruits and vegetables do the respondents eat most or most often? What meals are fruits and vegetables consumed? Division of survey groups into women, men, children, senior citizens, etc. Discuss with the students what information and assistance they should give the interviewees for the survey. These include, for example: A statement that a serving is roughly a handful. that you and the interview partner mentally go through the meals in the daily routine for fruit and vegetables. how you can explain goal 5 on the day and the background to the interview partner at the end of the check. Work out practical tips with the class for 5 a day with the question: How do I convince friends, relatives or classmates how easy it is to implement 5 a day? Which arguments can convince you to eat or drink five servings of fruit and vegetables? Learning objectives: The pupils know the health-promoting effects of selected secondary plant substances. can sketch the process of cancer development and describe the possibilities of intervention of the secondary plant substances. independently develop a survey of 5 a day. analyze fruit and vegetable consumption. learn methods to pass on the 5 a day message. 10
10 * Slide 7 * Source: Cancer prevention through nutrition, German Institute for Nutritional Research, Potsdam-Rehbrücke Content: Numerous studies from all over the world show that fruit and vegetables can protect against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Anyone who eats a lot of fruit and vegetables is actively protecting their health. At least five servings a day should be the more the better. Epidemiological studies provide convincing evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Scientists estimate that% of cancer cases can be prevented by good eating habits. The fat reduction and thus the lowering of excess weight as well as the absorption of special active ingredients such as secondary plant substances are particularly effective. The recommendations therefore focus on increasing the consumption of plant-based foods, especially fruit and vegetables. Neither individual active ingredients nor certain types of fruit or vegetable can be ascribed a particular effectiveness. The totality of all ingredients seems to make up the protective potential. Isolated administration of the individual substances could not show any positive effects. Therefore, the recommendation is to reach for the fruit and vegetable offer as much as possible, regularly and in a varied manner. Furthermore, the consumption of grain and grain products, legumes and potatoes should be increased (see Nutrition Circle) and alcohol should only be drunk to a small extent. Looking at the number of estimated new cases of cancer, the picture is worrying. Colon, breast and lung cancers are particularly prevalent. The graphic only shows the types of cancer that can apparently be influenced by diet. Malignant neoplasms of cancer in Germany (estimated new cases 1997) Oral cavity and pharynx Oral cavity and pharynx Esophagus Esophagus Stomach Stomach Colon Colon Pancreas Pancreas Larynx Larynx Lung Lung Mammary gland Mammary gland Kidney Kidney Methodological and didactic information: Discuss the frequency of cancer diseases with the students the avoidable cases through better nutrition. Pay particular attention to the role of fruits and vegetables in connection with an overall balanced diet, as represented by the nutritional circle. * Learning objectives: The pupils learn that consuming at least five servings of fruit and vegetables helps prevent cancer. know the relationship between cancer and nutrition. get to know the cancer risk factors in the diet. 11
11 Slide 8 Content: 5 a day is the ideal diet, especially for athletes. Anyone who wants to be physically fit must pay attention to their diet. Not too much, not too little energy, lots of carbohydrates, sufficient protein and little fat are the main nutrients in the foreground. Otherwise it says: many vitamins and minerals. Supplements are not necessary as long as the diet is right. Carbohydrates provide optimal energy and are pleasantly filling. Fitness foods should therefore be high in carbohydrates and contain many grain products, vegetables and fruits. Fructose, the form of sugar made from fruit, gets into the blood relatively quickly and is therefore quickly available. Starch as a complex carbohydrate from vegetables, bread, pasta, potatoes and rice enters the blood more slowly and evenly and keeps the blood sugar level optimally constant. Sports nutrition should be high in carbohydrates and low in fat. Fatty food stays in the stomach for a long time and impairs physical performance. Protein is an important building material for the body, also for building muscle. Meat and fish, but also dairy products, potatoes and legumes such as peas, beans and lentils contain a lot of protein. Protein supplements are superfluous; Even athletes do not need to fear a shortage. Anyone who is physically active has to drink a lot and drink the right amount. When you sweat, you lose water and minerals that need to be replaced. If about 2% liquid is missing, there is a drop in performance of 20%. Recommended drinks for sport before and afterwards are fruit and vegetable juices diluted with water. Recommended meals: easily digestible dishes such as potato or rice dishes with vegetables, pasta with vegetable sauces. the small snack: rice pudding or yoghurt with fruit (e.g. banana, apple), fruit juice with soluble oat flakes. as breakfast: oat flakes with fruit or dried fruit, bread with quark, radishes and cucumber. Some examples of nutrient carriers: High protein: fish, meat, eggs (animal protein carriers); Legumes, cereals (vegetable protein carriers) High in fat: many types of sausage, fatty meat such as belly meat, knuckles, deep-fried foods, cakes, pies, spreads Carbohydrates: cereals, potatoes, vegetables (high in starch), fruit (high in fructose). Methodical and didactic advice: Develop a tasty, sporty diet with the students at 5 a day. The plan should include as many fruits and vegetables as possible, but still be realistic. Here, too, attention should be paid to a low fat content and little isolated sugar (sucrose or table sugar). A calculation based on nutritional tables is not necessary, but can be carried out in addition. However, basic knowledge of the nutritional value of foods is necessary for the task. Nutrition tables on the Internet, from bookstores or from food companies can help. The simplest editing can be achieved with the students roughly sketching their meals and describing the fruit and vegetables in more detail. The worksheet can be supplemented by a recipe collection from magazines, newspapers, the Internet and other recipe sources. The same applies here: a high proportion of fruit and vegetables, at least one portion of fruit and / or vegetables per meal and a low fat content. The topic of fitness lends itself to paying more attention to leafy salads. These salads as low-calorie and versatile foods can be eaten as a side dish, but also in sophisticated combinations with other foods. Leaf salads with cheese, potatoes, nuts, fish or meat make a filling, wholesome meal. If necessary, use recipes to discuss the possibilities for salad dishes, create your own recipes with various types of salad in the school lesson, and possibly prepare the recipes together. Not all salad is the same: Taste the differences with the students! Learning objectives: The pupils get to know 5 a day as a fitness food. 12th
12 Fitness-Food worksheet A steak every day as a protein source for the muscles, vitamin and mineral supplements for fitness and beauty as well as electrolyte drinks for athletic performance? Not necessary if you have a balanced diet. Eating and drinking is important for fitness-minded people and athletes. Task: Find suitable 5 a day - foods, dishes, drinks and recipes. Fit at noon Healthy snack for in between blood sugar level pick-me-up Energy in the morning Light evening meal
13 Worksheet Knowledge brings you further! 1 How important are fruits and vegetables in the diet? 2 What are the nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables? 3 Which ingredients are responsible for the health-promoting effects? 4 Which diseases can be positively influenced? 5 What is meant by the simple rule of thumb 5 a day? 6 How are the portions measured at 5 a day? 7 Which dietary factors can illnesses have a positive or negative influence? Can you achieve goal 5 a day? Yes? Outstanding! Explain why it is so easy to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day. No? Pity! How could you manage to incorporate five servings of fruit and vegetables into your daily menu?
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