Which newspapers are the most vague


Tossanus: Daniel T. der Aeltere, distinguished as apologist of Reformed teaching and outstanding as head of church affairs in the Electoral Palatinate, born in Mömbelgard, today's Montbéliard, on July 15, 1541, † in Heidelberg on January 10, 1602. His father Peter Toussain from St. Laurent in Lorraine, friends of Calvin and Farel, worked as a reformist in Metz, in some places in Switzerland, France and in the Württemberg county of Mömbelgard, but during the interim period and later on the Lutheran movement in Mömbelgard was suspected of accommodation with the Reformed by his love of peace. In spite of this, Jacob Andreä knew how to get him out of office in 1571 because of his reformed sentiments; he could not enjoy the restitution that took place two years later because he died shortly afterwards. Daniel T. received his scientific training at the Universities of Basel and Tübingen. In the latter place he enjoyed the scholarship of Count Georg von Württemberg, who had owned the County of Mömbelgard since 1553. But this benefit was to cause him much trouble in later years. After leaving Tübingen as a master of arts in 1557, he went to Paris for some time to perfect his pronunciation of French, then to Orleans, where he publicly taught the Hebrew language and was appointed preacher in the Reformed community there in 1562 . Here he stood in a richly blessed sphere of activity until 1569, when he had to give way to the persecution to which his co-religionists were exposed by the Romans. He fled with his family to Montargis, where he stayed with the Duchess Renata v. Ferrara found shelter for a while, then to Sancerre and from there to his father in Mömbelgard, whom he supported in preaching for a whole year, until quiet times came again for France. During his stay in Mömbelgard, T. got into conflict with the Württemberg theologians, who at that time surrendered to the theory of ubiquity and took a very harsh position towards the Reformed, because of his dogmatic tendencies. He was therefore very happy when he was able to return to Orleans in August 1571. His reputation among his French co-religionists had risen in the meantime, so he was elected to the Commission at the National Synod of Rochelle in 1571, which was to defend the Reformed Confession against its enemies in suitable writings. The Provincial Synod at Sancerre in 1572 even elected him as their President. The horrors of St. Bartholomew's Night, which also found their way to Orleans, soon afterwards drove T. from Orleans forever. It was only like a miracle that he escaped with his family and for a short time found a place of recovery in Montargis, from where he turned to Basel. In March 1573 he was called in this city by the Elector Palatine Friedrich III. to his court preacher. In this new position, in which he enjoyed the full confidence of his princely lord, he soon found himself embroiled in all sorts of disputes with the Lutherans and later also with the Romans, however much he was devoted to them and unity even in his love of peace of the whole of Protestantism in its provocative polemics against the Church of Rome. With the secular member of the church council Otto v. Commissioned by Grünrade to introduce the Reformed Confession in the Upper Palatinate, he found, especially among the citizens of the city of Amberg, the seat of the Lutheran-minded Prince Ludwig, the governor of this remote part of the Electorate of the Palatinate, a resistance similar to that of Olevianus before him (see ADB XXIV, 286) found. A "Christian remembrance of an Ersamen Rath vnd community of the Electoral Palatinate instead of Amberg, of the recent act plowed with them to procreate and maintain godly unity in churches and schools", published in T. 1575, tried to make the said calmly clear that no new faith should be forced upon them; rather, the only thing that matters to the authorities is that the subjects are righteously instructed. His well-meaning words, however, only increased the excitement. Immediately against his writing a very biting tone appeared “Warhaffter report, Eine Erbarn Burgermeister, inside and outside council, the Churf. Pfaltz Stad Amberg, which in the churches and schools belonging to it, the Christian, pure teaching, according to the content of God's word, and the right were Augsp. Confession is held, and the noble Sacramenta are given, and all other actus Ecclesiastici are performed. And what shape she should be left with the intended reading and church ordinance, at any time and still, to be prayed and prayed for. ”Elector Friedrich III. then intended, in order to be able to organize these matters better, to relocate his residence to Amberg for some time. His death on October 26th, 1576, freed the Upper Palatinate from the Reformed preachers who had been Octroced to them. T., who stood by the elector's side with the consolation of God's word in the last few hours, saw himself soon after his death from the new sovereign, the Lutheran elector Ludwig VI. reset by not letting him speak at the funeral. It was only thanks to the mediation of Count Palatine Johann Casimir that he was allowed to give a special commemorative sermon in the Holy Spirit Church the next day. He stayed in Heidelberg until the spring of 1577, as the new prince had been kept away from his residence until then. Just like the other Reformed theologians, he was forbidden to exercise his office, and when he nevertheless preached a sermon on the words of the institution of Holy Communion in St. Peter's on February 3, 1577, without the permission of the Lutheran ministry, this became the signal for the most ruthless Action against the Reformed theologians who were still in Heidelberg. However, he was shown to find Neustadt a. d. Hardt, which with the possessions on the left bank of the Rhine had fallen to the Reformed-minded Count Palatine Johann Casimir, a position corresponding to its importance. The latter named him general superintendent over all churches and schools in his country.

When the aforementioned prince opened a reformed university in Neustadt on April 1, 1578, primarily on the advice of T., he called on most of the previous Heidelberg professors to the same, although T. continued his ecclesiastical supervision. In addition, for some time he pastored the neighboring Walloon parish of St. Lambrecht, which at that time lacked its own shepherd. The foreign community in this part of the Palatinate, as in the Electoral Palatinate before and after, he took care of in a lively manner. He usually attended their synods, and at the one that met in Frankenthal in 1582, he was even president. So it was he, as the right-hand man of his present sovereign, who encouraged him to march into the camp of Elector Gebhard of Cologne. Then the Palatinate Elector Ludwig VI died. on October 12, 1583 and Johann Casimir had to return from the Cologne war as guardian of the nine-year-old Prince Elector Friedrich IV and as administrator of the country. On this occasion he moved the Neustadt University, known under the name Casimirianum, to Heidelberg, after he had tried in vain to reach an understanding with the Lutheran theologians there by means of kindness. T., who had soon returned as court preacher with Count Palatine Johann Casimir, was greeted with hostile glances by those who now blasphemed the Reformed doctrine every Sunday from the pulpit. A disputation, chaired on April 4, 1584 by Johann Jacob Grynäus, who had been appointed from Basel, also turned out to be useless; The Lutheran preachers in the capital even submitted a resolution against the administrator's mandate issued on February 19, 1584, concerning the abolition of the Calumnia and blasphemy. As before, they persisted in their public blasphemy on the Reformed doctrine of the Lord's Supper and of the person of Christ. Therefore, she was finally released on July 17th. In the meantime, T. was appointed counselor to Count Palatine Johann Casimir from Lucas Osiander the elder, and especially because of his "Consolation to all good-hearted Christians" published in 1578, especially because of the Reyn, and papistically clean, doctrine of the sacraments of the H. Abendtmals "together with Johann Marbach in Strasbourg and Nicolaus Cancerinus, Superintendent of the County of Harburg and Reichenweiler in Alsace, which T. defended himself thoroughly, and by Jacob Andreae in his Confutatio disputationis JJ Grynaei, Tubing. 1584 in a downright defamatory manner together with insulted his father. He himself remained silent about the mean treatment he received with Grynaeus. But the answer that the Heidelberg preachers gave in “Epistola Consolatoria ad rever. et gravissimos Theologos, D. Jac. Andreae: et D. Lucam Osiandrum 1584 “, was the most brilliant justification of his person. A few years later Samuel Huber from Bern, who had been driven by megalomania into the Lutheran Church, which could not even tolerate its vague universalism, began arguing with T. about the doctrine of predestination. Perhaps no one judged this trafficked man better than T. in his reply, titled: “The real signs of dizziness in the restless man Sam. Huber, who raised himself against the eternal and righteous counsel of God to be an advocate of the rejected and vapourized with great bumbling. Newstadt an der Hardt 1592 ”.

Most violent, however, was the polemic in which he saw himself intertwined with several Jesuits, especially with Petrus Thyraeus, who seriously denied the evangelical pastors all legitimacy. T. acted as their lawyer and, on the basis of the Holy Scriptures and the Church Fathers, sought the rights of a Christian authority to call the servants of the church or to confirm their calling, rejecting the exclusive episcopal authority to throw something in his script: " De Jure Vocationis et Missionis Ministrorum Evangelicorum, Theses apologeticae “(Heidelb. 1587). The Jesuit counter-writ: "De ratione examinandi et examine apologeticarum thesium nuperrime a Thyraeo edito" is abundant in personal invectives and treats T. like a stupid boy. In a subsequently published "Epistola, nouthetice sive admonitoria", T. replied in a thoroughly calm and measured tone, but went into the history of some popes, which now provoked Thyraeus to the greatest extent and put together his and his opponent's writings that had previously appeared and with armor Provided prefaces, which show his supposed superiority and the antagonist's weakness, published in Mainz in 1589. T. then broke off the direct polemic, but gave in his pastor theology, "Pastor Evangelicus, sive de legitima Pastorum evangelicorum vocatione, officio et praesidio", published a year later, an excellent refutation of all the false reasons of the aforementioned Jesuit. The quarrel with Laurentius Arturus and Nicolaus Serrarius was of lesser interest.

The writings which T. wrote against Kaspar Schwenkfeld's heresies, which were fairly widespread in the Electoral Palatinate at that time, are of equal lasting value. In doing so, he has completely invalidated the reproach, which has so often been wrongly made against the Reformed Church up to the present day, for being too spiritualistic in its teaching, and has shown that it is rather extremely biblical, sober and averse to all enthusiastic and subjective beings . Even the title of the first edition of his main text against Schwenkfeld: “More thorough and necessary proof that today's sects and divisions are a lover of the truth of Christ. Protestant religion should not be held ”(Heidelb. 1575) is characteristic in this respect.

But not only in writings for the people, among which we also come across several collections of sermons, but also in learned disputations, which theology students held under his direction, and other treatises, he worked in general for biblical truth and the cause of Protestantism and in the especially for the Reformed Confession. Most of his works are still of great value today, such as his commentaries on the books of the New Testament and his explanation of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, his “Synopsis de Patribus” and others. Several of these have appeared in English, Dutch, and French translations. In the latter language he himself published some edifying writings, among which his excellent prayer booklet, also published in German, "L'exercice de l'âme fidèle" should be mentioned.

In 1586, T. acquired his doctorate in theology, in which he had received the first professorship at Heidelberg University. He also became a member of the Electoral Palatinate Church Council. The loss of his first wife, a born Covet from Paris, on March 28, 1587 bowed him deeply. Of his two surviving sons, the one named after him is to be named as an important scholar who published the literary legacy of his father with impressive prefaces. Several daughters married famous men, such as Renata, who, as the wife of the church councilor Joh. Wigand Spanheim, became the ancestor of the well-known scholarly family of Spanheim; and Johanna, married to Joh. Friedr. Schloer, from whose marriage the learned Mieg family of theologians emerged.

The theologian of the same name Daniel T. the Younger, rector in Basel, French pastor in Frankenthal and most recently professor and church councilor in Heidelberg, where he died on October 3rd in 1655, is a nephew of Daniel T. the elder. He has made several excellent school speeches in Latin, including one about the building, destruction and rebuilding of the city of Heidelberg, as well as a parenting to the older Johannes Buxtorf.

Most of the writings of T. are recorded in the France Protestante, but this list is not exhaustive. There was no lack of attempts to describe T.'s life. The most valuable is “Vitae et obitus Dan. Tossani narratio ”of his son Paul, dedicated to the Elector Friedrich IV. The work of Dr. Müller, grammar school director in Flensburg, in the annual report from 1882 there. reform. Church newspaper from 1866 should be mentioned here, but primarily the excellent articles by Bernus and Weiss in the bullet. hist. et suffered, de la soc. you protest, franç. to mention, as well as the genealogically very meritorious work of Dr. Ad. von den Velden in the French Colonie 1892. - Sim. Stenius, Oratio funeb. - Jac. Christmann, Parentatio. - Chauffepie, Dictionn. - Niceron. - Greetings. - Bouginé. - Duke. - Great Univ.-Lex. - Corpus reform. Calvini epp. - Herminjard, Corresp. d. Reform. - Kirchhofer, Farel. - Sudhoff, Olevian. - Struve, Palatinate. Church halls - Häusser. - Medicus, church history of Baiern and Rheinpfalz. - | Wittmann, Gesch. d. Reform, in d. Upper Palatinate. - Book of Martyrs by Crespin and Crocius. - Röhrich, Gesch. d. Reform, in Alsace. - Schnurrer, Explanation. D. Württemb. Church ref. and scholarly history - Cuno, Franc. Junius. - Palatinate. Memorab. XIV. - F. v. Bezold, letters of the Pfalzgr. Joh. Cas. - v. Kluckhohn, letters Friedr. d. Pious. - The same, Friedr. d. Pious ones. - Cyprian, epist. Gothan. - Hotomannorum Epist. - Zanchii Opera. - Hagen, letters from Heidelb. Professors. - Cuno, from Olevian's circle of friends. - The finished man is preparing a comprehensive monograph on T.

Recommended citation style

Cuno, "Tossanus, Daniel" in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie 38 (1894), pp. 469-474 [online version]; URL: https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/pnd119393697.html#adbcontent