Where are the Illuminati based in Nigeria

Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

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The Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online, which is based on the printed edition Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit (JB Metzler Verlag Stuttgart, 2005-2012, in cooperation with the Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut Essen), offers a multi-faceted look at the significant age from the middle of the 15th to the middle of the 19th century.

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I (index) Location

(2,535 words)

Ibadan, Nigeria State formation, non-European | West African world Iberian Peninsula, Hanseatic League | Jewish Society | Conversion | Conversion | Messiah | National languages ​​| Personal union | Plaice compulsory | Sephardim | Urban bourgeoisie | Stand, stands | Student | Torah | Tribute | Pewter caster | Forced migration Iberoamerica, Pan Americanism Ibiza, Spain salt Idar-Oberstein, Rhineland-Palatinate Montanwirtschaft | Jewellery Idria / Idrija, Slovenia Deposits | Montanwirtschaft | Mercury | World trade goods Idstein, Hesse Unions, ecclesiastical Ijsselmee ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

I (index) Subject

(3,435 words)

I Ching (Yijing), Yin-yang symbols | Yin-Yang symbolism Iatroastrology, Disease | Therapeutic Concepts | Madness | Zodiacus | Plague writings Iatrochemistry, Alchemy | Chemical Sciences | Experimental Medicine | Fever | Medicine | Medicine | Paracelsism | Paracelsism | Pharmacy | Acids | Dust lung Iatra demonology, Illness Iatromagy, Disease | Therapeutic Concepts Iatromechanics, Experimental Medicine | Medicine | Therapeutic Concepts Iatrophysics, Baths, medical | Experimental Medicine | Mechanism | Medicine | Nat ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

iconography

(884 words)

Author (s):Kanz, Roland

1. Term The term I. derives from Greek. eikṓn (»Image«, »image«) and gráphein (»Write«, »describe«) and denotes the teaching of the image content. However, the term only acquired this meaning through art history in the 19th century. In general, the I. deals with all objects, forms and designs in representations, insofar as they enable a statement to be made about social, historical, religious or aesthetic conditions or ideas as a system of symbols. ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Iconoclasm

(926 words)

Author (s):Wiggermann, Uta

1. Definition and medieval development Under I. one understands the rejection and destruction of cultic images. The great picture controversy of the 8th and 9th centuries [2] was the prerequisite and frame of reference of the nzl. I. In it the theological and power-political conflict potential that the early Christian unleashed itself with all its might. The cult of the image had always offered. Iconic controversy came from the sermons that the Byz. Emperor Leon III 726 held against the pictures - icons, i.e. depictions of Christ, Mary and saints. 730 demanded a ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Illuminati

(1,191 words)

Author (s):Markner, Reinhard

1. Organizational history A secret society founded by Adam Weishaupt in Ingolstadt in 1776, which sought to achieve its goal - in the broadest sense of promoting the Enlightenment - by subversive means called itself the "Order of the I." After a short period of prosperity, it was banned in Palatinate-Bavaria in 1785 as dangerous to the state and ceased its activities in other parts of the Old Kingdom and Europe by 1788. State University of Canon Law and P ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Illusionism

(975 words)

Author (s):Kanz, Roland

1. Term I. One understands the intended effect of the illusion by a work of art. The illusion is mostly based on a deception of the sense of sight, which is achieved by means of naturalistic and precise imitation as well as perspective representation methods. The aim is that the viewer cannot immediately distinguish between art and reality. However, it is not a question of a permanent confusion between illusion and reality, but of the realization that it is art [5]; [6]. With the help of I., artists demonstrate that ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Real estate rights

(828 words)

Author (s):Pahlow, Louis

1. General I., i.e. rights to land - such as property, easements or mortgage liens - were shaped by Roman law models with regard to their creation, their transfer or their extinction in the nzl. Europe (common law). With regard to their formal recording, however, there are increasing numbers of influences. The greatest importance among the I. had in all of Europe two groups of rights, which can be summarized as usage and exploitation rights: Louis Pahlow2. Rights of useAn extraordinarily wide area d ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

immunity

(669 words)

Author (s):Kohl, Gerald

The term I. (from lat. immunitas, originally as freedom from public burdens, munera) generally denotes the freedom from interference in a certain legal sphere. The I. authorized persons as well as possibly other persons or objects are thus not subject to the dominion rights of others (especially their norms and enforcement). I. occurs in the Nz. in different contexts. (a) In Holy Rom. The I. districts of the MA also worked richly in the Nz. continued: If they had been able to enforce against the surrounding rulers, so ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Impeachment

(646 words)

Author (s):Portner, Regina

1. Term of the ma. Right derived term I. denotes the v. a. Parliamentary proceedings in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and the United States for the impeachment of a member of the government or other senior official for serious offenses. In the United Kingdom, the I. serves to initiate a formal hearing and investigation, but the act of impeachment itself required a separate parliamentary resolution. The american. In contrast, federal law writes the official ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Impôt unique

(735 words)

Author (s):Köster, Roman

1. Concept and meaning The I. U. (»single tax«) referred to the tax policy ideal of a direct sole tax - i. H. the levying of a single tax - on land, as it is esp. in the French Physiocracy was developed in the 18th century. The emergence of this concept was closely related to the enlightened natural law discussion about the state and its relationship to its subjects. The existing taxes were i. Generally not based on an explicit concept: They followed, among other things. current needs of the authorities and compromises of the estates ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

improvisation

(671 words)

Author (s):Möller, Hartmut

1. Terminus I. (from lat. improvisus, "Unforeseen"; ex improvisio, »Without preparation«) means, in relation to music, inventing and simultaneously realizing the sound. Already occasionally used in ma. Music theory, J. J. Rousseau adopted the term in 1768 Dictionnaire de musique on. However, it only seems to have prevailed against other terms such as fantasizing (fantasy), extemporating and preluding around the middle of the 19th century. Hartmut Möller2. Concept and objectives I. can as a musical act, as a result of this act ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indentured Labor

(768 words)

Author (s):Lucassen, Jan | Lucassen, Leo

A large number of impoverished European Workers who wanted to seek their fortune in North America in the 17th and 18th centuries did not have sufficient funds (emigration). A frequently used way out was indentured servitude (English; »contract bondage«) or I. L. (»contractually bound work«). This practice of hiring oneself out as a servant or worker with severely restricted personal rights on the basis of a voluntary, fixed-term contract was permitted by some legal systems, especially the English one (labor law). The compensation could come from a ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Forbidden Books Index

(794 words)

Author (s):Schneider, Ute

The I. V. B. (lat. Index librorum prohibitorum) was a mandatory directory of books and brochures for church censorship from the 16th to the 20th century. As an instrument of post-censorship, he listed printed products, the trade, purchase, possession and reading of which were forbidden for Catholics mostly under threat of excommunication. The Reformation, which used the relatively young technology of book printing as a multiplier of its ideas and the v. a. Folk-language books and pamphlets in large numbers as communication media e ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indians

(5,704 words)

Author (s):Kummels, Ingrid | Green castle, Andreas

1. Concept and methodological approach Immediately before the arrival of the Europeans lived on the American. Double continent an estimated 40 to 50 million people who live in population size, language [3. 94] and culture as well as social, economic and political organization were extraordinarily diverse [4]. The spectrum ranged from seasonal hunters and gatherers with informal political leadership to local farmers who integrate into overarching political systems with urban centers and class stratification.

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indian trade

(1,092 words)

Author (s):Häberlein, Mark

1. The development of European-Indian trade relations After the Spaniards in the 16th century in Central and South America. Mainland the great indian. Subjugating empires (conquista), establishing colonial rule and securing control over production areas and trade chains (colonial empire), the I. essentially limited itself to local barter in hard-to-reach frontier regions. Meanwhile in North America before 1600 all europ. Settlement attempts (Indians). Instead, the intercultural terms were ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indian policy

(3,123 words)

Author (s):König, Hans-Joachim | Wedge, Hartmut

1. Introduction The Europeans did not discover a deserted continent during their expansion into the New World. There they met cultures that were unknown to them, which not only appeared to be different from the previously known peoples, but also showed social, cultural and linguistic differences among each other and lived in geographically and climatically different regions (Indians). To the Europeans, they were all equally alien, strange, even barbaric (barbarian). According to their colonial interests ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

India trade

(1,137 words)

Author (s):Häberlein, Mark

1. The Portuguese (16th century) The ind. The subcontinent was already involved in extensive trade relations before the sea route from Europe to Asia was discovered. Gujarat merchants exported, among other things. Rice to Malindi in East Africa and Ormuz am Pers. Golf; they also had trade relations with Sumatra and Malacca. Arab. Merchants transported ind. Pepper (spices), silk and precious stones in the ports on the Pers. Gulf and Red Sea, from where they were transported to the Levant harbors via caravan trade; Venice was the distribution center ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indio

(842 words)

Author (s):King, Hans-Joachim

1. Geographical roots With the term I. Spaniards and Portuguese referred to the autochthonous population of America. As Columbus believed, on the search for India on October 12th 1492 with the wading island (Bahamas) actually one of the islands of the asiat. Having found India, he called the encountered population "I." Since his famous letter of February 1493 [2. 140]; [9] the term became common in the iber. Submit. Because the Spaniards referred to the newly discovered regions (discovery of America) as Las Indias (»India«) or Reinos de las Ind ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19

Indirect domination

(1,360 words)

Author (s):Man, Michael

1. Term In the historical sciences, the term for this particular form of colonial rule is now firmly established. It goes back to the British colonial administrator Frederick Lugard (1858–1945). After his military career in British India and Egypt, he was High Commissioner in Northern Nigeria from 1900 to 1906. Here he developed the policy of the I. H. by having the protectorate administered by those rulers who had recently been subjugated by the British. Insofar as the emirs formally recognized British supremacy, on the slave hand ...

Source: Encyclopedia of Modern Times Online

Date: 2019-11-19