What are deviant behaviors in sports

"... An act in sport can therefore only be described as aggressive when the goals are no longer compatible with the norms that the actors see as binding for them. Deviating from such norms is not always included equate illegal behavior.

Holding the opponent "in handball" and "not jostling with the shoulder" in football are officially illegal acts, but they are not considered to be harm even with obvious intent, as they do not yet violate unofficial standards that apply between the players .
Deviations from the norm in the sense of "unsportsmanlike behavior" are given, however, when an athlete tries not only to hinder his opponent in his actions, but also to harm him as a person, ie. H. if the attack is aimed at harming the person as such ("personal harm").

If the aim of the action is to harm the opponent, then that harm can only take the form of physical (or psychological) injury and pain. Now the following definition results in a narrow sense.

An act in sport is to be described as aggressive if a person, in deviation from sporting norms, intends with this act to cause harm to another person in the sense of "personal harm", whereby this harm in the form of physical (or psychological) injury and Pain can occur. "

Headbutt at the 2006 World Cup final.
Video on YouTube


DifferentTypes of aggression can be distinguished.

Aggression theories
Worksheet: Theories of Aggression - Observing aggressive behavior in the game
Types of aggression in sports
A process model of aggressive actions in sport

Aggression in sport (UV school sport NRW)